UK Pressure Groups

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What is lobbying?
Attempting to influence decisions made by officials in a government, most often legislators or members of regulatory agencies
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What has processed meat been labelled as?
Harmful and carcinogenic
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Is lobbying illegal?
No, but accepting money or gifts in order to influence those in power is
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Who is the most famous lobbyist?
Jack Abramoff
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What did Abramoff do?
Represented the Native Americans and influenced members of Congress against gambling
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What happened to Jack Abramoff?
He was at the centre of an extensive corruption investigation that led to his conviction and 21 others to be found guilty
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Over three years, how many meetings did Abramoff hold with the Bush administration?
485
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What was Abramoff's role in 2001?
A member of Bush's administration Transition Advisory Team assigned to the department of the interior
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From 2000 to 2003, what did six Indian tribes pay Abramoff?
Over $80 million
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What has the UK lobbying industry been valued at?
2 billion
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According to David Cameron, how often are MPs approached by lobbyists?
More than 100 times a week
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How long to ex-ministers have to wait before they can begin lobbying government?
12 months after leaving office
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Who has attempted to curb lobbying in the UK?
David Cameron
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How did Cameron's attempts at curbing lobbying go down?
Very badly, being referred to as rushed and ridiculous by Graham Allen
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What did Cameron want to do to curb lobbying?
Make a register of statutory lobbyists
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Why would curbing the lobbying crisis be so difficult for Cameron?
Whilst a register of statutory lobbyists could work, only companies that list lobbying as their main business would have to sign it
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Give an example of a lobbying scandal
Liam Fox's resignation as Defence Secretary, Malcolm Rifkind and Jack Straw's resignation and Stephen Byers suspension from the labour party
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Why did Liam Fox resign?
due to his relationship with an unapproved adviser
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Why did former Transport Secretary Stephen Byers get suspended from the Labour Party?
For saying that he was a "cab for hire" who would work up to £5,000 a day
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What are MPs prohibited from doing with regards to lobbying?
From taking payment to speak in the House or vote
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What do MPs have to do with their extra earnings?
Declare them in the Register of Member's Financial Interests
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Name a prominent climate change denier
Owen Patterson who at one point was Cameron's Environment Secretary
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How often did Patterson meet with the department's scientific adviser?
Only twice a year
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Who did Patterson seek advice from whilst acting as Environment Secretary?
Other climate change deniers such as Nigel Lawson (GWPF) and arch-sceptic Matt Ridley
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What is elitism?
The belief that some pressure groups form an elite based on the influence they hold or wealth that they have, and thus their influence or authority is greater than that of others
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What is pluralism?
The belief that a variety of pressure groups are allowed to exist and work in society, sharing influence, regardless of wealth or influence
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What is objectivity?
Sticking to the facts and being guided by evidence
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What is impartiality?
Not taking sides and treating with the same respect different versions of events
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What percentage of the population is Muslim?
5%
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In a survey, what percentage of the population did the public feel was Muslim?
21%
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When did islamophobia first begin?
1970s and early 1980s
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In 2002 to 2003, what percentage increase in stop and searches was there in relation to Asians?
302%
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In 2002 to 2003, what percentage increase in stop and searches was there in relation to African Americans?
230%
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In 2002 to 2003, what percentage increase in stop and searches was there in relation to whites?
118%
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What is the prevent policy?
A policy where those working in the public sector are asked to look for and report tell tale signs of extremism
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Which parties support the prevent policy?
All three major parties
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What did John Reid ask Muslim parents to do?
Keep an eye out for tell tale signs of extremism
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Who is John Reid?
Labour Home Secretary
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How many news stories about British Muslims make comparisons between Islam and other religions?
1/5
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In a 2008 study, what were the most common nouns used when people spoke in relation to British Muslims?
Islamist, suicide bomber and militant
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When thousands of people protested against austerity in London, what did the BBC do?
Didn't cover it
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What does the fact that the BBC didn't cover anti austerity marches in London show?
Elitism
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Who are the Focus E15 mothers?
A group of 29 single mums who were evicted from their hostel housing in East London to save the government £40,000
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What was one of the first ever and still prominent pressure groups?
Greenpeace
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When was Greenpeace established?
In the 1970s
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What are pressure groups?
An association that may be formal or informal whose purpose is to further the interests of a specific section of society or to promote a particular cause
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What are the differences between pressure groups and political parties?
Parties want to win power through elections, parties have open membership some pgs closed pgs influence power after election, pgs act regardless who in power, parties cover all, pgs focus on area, parties accountable pgs not, pgs illegal methods
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Give an example of a single issue pressure group
ALF
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Give an example of a pressure group that focuses on an area
Greenpeace
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Give an example of a pressure group with closed membership
NUT only for teachers, BMA only for doctors
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Why are parties often accountable to their members?
They have constitutions to uphold
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Do pressure groups usually have constitutions?
No
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Give an example of a pressure group with a constitution
Animal Aid
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Give an example of a pressure group without a constitution
UK Uncut
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Give an example of a pressure group likely to use illegal methods
ALF
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What is an insider group?
One that is accepted by government
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What benefits do insider groups enjoy?
Direct access to ministers and policy makers and work closely with departments regardless of party in government
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Give an example of a pressure group with a close link to a government department regardless of who is in power
NFU and Defra
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What is Defra?
Department for environment, food and rural affairs
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What benefit does the government have to using pressure groups?
They provide expertise
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Give examples of insider pressure groups
BMA, NFU, National Trust, CBI, Law Society, RSPCA and Howard League for Penal reform
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What is an outsider group?
A group excluded from government decision making process who wants to be an insider but hasn't achieved it yet or never wants to work with government
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Where does outsider group's funding come from?
Its members and supporters
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Give examples of outsider groups
ALF, CND, Fathers 4 Justice, Countryside Alliance
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What is a sectional group?
A group that seeks to look after its own members and defend its own economic interests
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What types of groups can be deemed as insider groups?
Trade unions and employers organisations
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Give examples of sectional groups
BMA, NFU, NUT, Law Society and ACPO
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What is ACPO?
Association of Chief Police Officers
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What are promotional/cause groups?
A group which seeks to promote its particular view with no economic self interest
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Is the membership to cause groups open or closed?
Open
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Give examples of cause groups
Countryside alliance, Greenpeace, Animal Aid, CND and Liberty
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What does the group Liberty promote?
Civil liberties
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Why are certain groups insiders?
They possess expertise which is useful in policy making, ministers need their cooperation to help policy implementation, reasonable aims, responsible use of methods, represent a pat of society
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Give an example of a group that possesses expertise which may help government in policy formulation
NFU (national farmers union)
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Give an example of a group who's cooperation the government needs to implement policy
The BMA with any medical policies etc
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Give an example of an insider group not implementing the governments policy and causing them trouble
The BMA and the junior doctors strikes
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Give an example of an insider group with reasonable aims
Law Society
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Give an example of a pressure group representing a portion of society
Survival international and NFU
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What percentage of all farmers are members of the NFU?
90%
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Why are some groups outsiders?
Aims considered extreme or excessive, extreme methods, issues not considered important by government, no expertise to help government, too many pressure groups in one area
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Give an example of a pressure group with extreme aims?
ALF
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Give an example of a pressure group that uses extreme methods
Fathers 4 Justice climbing up Buckingham Palace and hurling flowerbombs into commons
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What are the functions of pressure groups?
Influence public policy, act as check on government, assist citizens to gain redress of grievance, represent minority opinion, participate in politics between elections, provide expertise, educate the public and provide members with various services
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Give an example of a pressure group influencing public policy
The BMA and their work with the smoking ban
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What is functional representation?
The representation of groups based on their function within the economy or society, eg industries and professions
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What is a positive about pressure groups representing minority opinion?
They fill the democratic deficit
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Give an example of a pressure group that educates the public
The CND, Animal Aid
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Give an example of a pressure groups providing participation between elections
The Countryside Alliance and their protests against the hunting ban
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What party did the CND used to be linked to?
Labour
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Give an example of a pressure group acting as a check on government
Stop the War Coalition acting as a check and putting pressure on government against the Iraq War
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Give an example of a pressure group that provides its members with a service
National Trust and trade unions
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In what ways can pressure groups exert influence?
Through politicians, parliament, political parties, public opinion and direct action
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Give examples of direct action
Protests, strikes, petitions, illegal methods etc
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What factors bring success to pressure groups?
Insider or outsider status, public and media support, economic power, member base, ability to use sanctions, timing and the government's view
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Give an example of when the NFU have helped the government
Over the foot and mouth disease crisis and badger cull
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Give an example of the ALF being successful
They prevented the work of the HLS
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What was HLS?
Huntingdon Life Sciences which was Europe's largest test lab for animals
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Give an example of issues that have succeeded due to public support
Princess Diana and land mines
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Give an example of an economically powerful group not having success
Countryside Alliance failure to prevent the hunting bill
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What is the ability of a group to use sanctions dependent on?
Public support
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When is the best time for a pressure group to act?
Before an election or when government has a small majority
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How has the role of pressure groups changed in recent years?
Growth of cause groups, unpopularity of parties, more access points, globalization, HRA, extra-party institutions and direct action
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What is the corporatist approach to pressure groups?
Where pressure groups are backed by private businesses and therefore have influence in policy making
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Give an example of the corporatist approach having an influence over government
The Conservative Party reduced government influence in business matters
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What does elitism mean?
Not all interest groups are equal in status, some are more powerful, have better organisation and finances to support them
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What is pluralism?
The argument that good democracy means power is spread out and shared and decisions made through negotiation between different groups in society
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What are the conditions of pluralism?
Shared power among groups, internally democratic groups, neutral government
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What are pressure groups?
They are political associations that are dedicated to defending and promoting the interests of a section of the community or that wish to pursue a specific cause in order to influence government at any level
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What are sectional groups?
Groups that represent a certain section of society
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What are promotional groups?
Groups that pursue a specific cause or issue
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Give examples of sectional group
CBI, NFU, NUT, NUS, BBA and RCN
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Give examples of promotional groups
Friends of the Earth, Liberty, Animal Aid etc
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What is functional representation?
The idea that various groups represent areas of society that have specific functions
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Give examples of insider groups
NFU, RSPCA, AA, NSPCC and CBI
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Give examples of outsider groups
Greenpeace, Plane Stupid, ALF, Countryside Alliance and Exit
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What is pluralism?
A description of a society or a political system which suggests that power there are many groups, beliefs and lifestyles that flourish together and power are shared
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What is elitism?
A description of a society or a political system where power is concentrated
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How do pressure groups enhance pluralism?
They disperse power, they ensure that many groups can exert political influence, they help to protect the interests of groups in society and they balance the power of centralised government
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How can pressure groups be associated with pluralism?
Some pressure groups may concentrate power, led by unaccountable elites and some groups may hold a disproportionate amount of power compared to others
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Why is pressure group activity becoming more extensive?
Membership and identification with political parties is declining, electorate is now better informed, new media have helped, number and membership of pressure has increased, political system is more accessible to groups and growing affluence
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What are the methods of pressure groups?
Lobbying ministers, direct action, protests, strikes, petitions, working with government, education, legal action and media campaigns
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Give an example of a group that has lobbied ministers
CBI
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Give an example of a group that uses direct action
Greenpeace and ALF
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Give an example of a pressure group that has achieved its aims through working with government
BMA and the Smoking Ban
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Give an example of a group that uses protests
Stop the War Campaign
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Give an example of a group that uses strikes
Junior doctors
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Give an example of a group that uses e-petitions
38 degrees
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Give an example of a group that uses media campaigns
Justice for Ghurkhas campaign
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Give an example of a group that has used action through law courts to achieve their aims
Trade unions
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What are the factors of success in pressure groups?
Resources, insider status, tactics, sharing the same agenda as government, lack of opposition, favourable circumstances, celebrity involvement and strategic position
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Give an example of a group having success due to their resources
Countryside Alliance financial resources organising mass demonstrations in London and as a result the hunting ban was watered down in 2004
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Give an example of a pressure group having success due to their tactics
Save England's Forests campaigns stopped government from selling off large quantities of forest
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Give an example of a pressure group having success as it shared the same agenda as government
The CBI welcomed a business friendly government in 2010 and secured a promise to reduce corporation tax by 14%
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Give an example of celebrity endorsement of a pressure group
Justice For Ghurkhas campaign led by actress Joanna Lumley demanded that Ghurkhas have the right to settle in the UK
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What is the typical method of the BBA?
Lobbying ministers
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How do pressure groups enhance democracy?
Represent minority opinion, they help to disperse power, they educate the public, they provide expertise, provide a check on government, provide a way in which people can participate in politics, and they provide redress for grievances
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How do pressure groups undermine democracy?
Undermine the authority of parliament, represent self interest, can be too powerful, not democratically accountable, those that break the law threaten order in society, some groups have more influence than others and unrepresentative leaders
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What has processed meat been labelled as?

Back

Harmful and carcinogenic

Card 3

Front

Is lobbying illegal?

Back

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Card 4

Front

Who is the most famous lobbyist?

Back

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Card 5

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What did Abramoff do?

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