Tropical Rainforests

what is the climate like in a rainforest?
same all year round, no seasons, hot (20-28 degrees), lots of rainfall (2000mm a year), rain every day
1 of 43
what is the soil like in a rain forest?
isn't very fertile - heavy rain washes nutrients away BUT nutrients in humus layer - thin, decays fast in warm, moist conditions
2 of 43
what are the plants like in a rainforest?
evergreen = from continual growing season, some are really tall, vegetation cover is dense, very light light reaches floor, lots of epiphytes (climbing plants)
3 of 43
what are animals like in a rainforest?
lots of biodiversity, contain most animal species, lots of insects and birds, brightly coloured, lots of noise
4 of 43
what are the people like in rainforest?
many people, adapted to live over generations, hunting, fishing, gathering nuts and berries and growing vegetables
5 of 43
examples of how climate and soil are interdependant
warm + wet climate = dead plant material is decomposed quickly by fungi on floor. so surface soil has lots of nutrients = growing quickly and easily
6 of 43
examples of how plants and animals are interdependant
plants pass on nutrients when eaten by animals, dense vegetation = lots of food = high animal population (symbiotic relationships)
7 of 43
examples of how climate and people are interdependant
changes are made to ecosystem if people cause deforestation = increase C02 in atmosphere = greenhouse effect and changing climate
8 of 43
examples of how plants and water and climate and people are interdependant
trees intercept water and release back into atmosphere = moisture for future rainfall. If trees are cut down =climate may change = rick drought increases affecting plants and animals
9 of 43
what do plants have to adapt to cope with?
high rainfall, high temperatures, competition for light
10 of 43
how do trees adapt to cope in a rainforest?
tall trees have buttress roots to support height AND have smooth, thin bark = no need for protect from cold temperatures + water runs off easily
11 of 43
how do plants adapt to cope in a rainforest?
thick + waxy leaves with drip-tips = water runs off leaf, no standing water for bacteria + leaves repel water AND drop leaves gradually throughout year = so they grow all year round AND climbing plants (lianas) = use tree trunks to climb to sunlight
12 of 43
what adaptions have the highest layer of the rainforest made?
the emergent layer - only have branches at crown
13 of 43
what adaptions have the undercanopy made?
large leaves to absorb as much sunlight as possible
14 of 43
what is biodiversity?
the variety of organisms living in a particular area - plants and animals
15 of 43
what is the biodiversity of a rainforest like?
very high - contain 50% of world's species and around half of all life on Earth
16 of 43
why is biodiversity so high in rainforests?
stable and productive environments due to hot and moist climate, plants + animals don't have to cope with changing conditions and always plenty to eat
17 of 43
what is leading to a loss of biodiversity in rainforests?
deforestation and uncontrolled devlelopment of rainforests = extinction, endangered species have increased
18 of 43
reasons for deforestation?
population pressure, mineral extraction, energy development, commercial logging, commercial farming, subsistence farming
19 of 43
how is population pressure causing deforestation?
population in area increase = trees cleared to make land for new settlements
20 of 43
how is mineral extraction causing deforestation?
minerals are mined and sold to make money
21 of 43
how is energy development causing deforestation?
building dams to generate hydro-electric power floods large areas of forest
22 of 43
how is commercial logging causing deforestation?
trees felled to make money. road building for logging also requires more tree clearances
23 of 43
how is commercial farming causing deforestation?
forest cleared for cattle grazing or for huge palm oil or soya plantations
24 of 43
how is subsistence farming causing deforestation?
forest cleared to grow food for themselves and their families
25 of 43
what are environmental impacts of deforestation?
soil erosion/ flooding, reduced soil fertility, loss of biodiversity, contribution to climate change
26 of 43
what are the economic impacts of deforestation?
creates jobs, lots of money made, destroy resources country depends on = reduce tourism, livelihoods of locals destroyed
27 of 43
how is the rate of deforestation increasing?
rates are very high (130000km^2 per year), hotspots in Nigeria, global rates are slowing down, deforestation in Brazil and Indonesia account for half of deforestation
28 of 43
what is the size of the Amazon rainforest?
8 million km^2
29 of 43
how much land has been deforested since 1978?
750000 km^2
30 of 43
causes of deforestation in the Amazon rainforest? include percentages
65-70% - commerial ranching AND 20-25% - subsistence farming AND 5-10% - commercial farming AND 2-3% - logging AND 1-2% - others (mineral extraction, road building, energy development, building settlements)
31 of 43
what are the environmental impacts of deforestation on the Amazon rainforest?
it stores around 100 billion tonnes of C02, deforestation = global warming AND soil erosion caused by soy farming
32 of 43
what are the economic impacts of deforestation on the Amazon rainforest?
wealth to countries that were poor AND farming = money for countries in rainforest AND creates jobs for people in mining AND logging contributes to Brazil's economy AND rubber tappers have lost livelihoods as trees are cut down
33 of 43
why is protective rainforestes important?
preserve biodiversity AND discover new medicines and provide products like coffee/ chocolate AND if sustainable = long-term economic benefits AND reduce greenhouse effect AND stop climate change by regulating climate and water cycle
34 of 43
ways that rainforests can be sustainably managed?
selective logging, replanting, ecotourism, international hardwood agreements, education, reducing debt, conservation
35 of 43
how does selective logging work?
only some trees are felled = forest will be able to regenerate, use horse logging or helicopter logging are least damaging
36 of 43
how does replanting work?
new trees planted to replace ones cut down = trees there in the future, same type of tree is replanted to keep biodiversity, make laws for logging companies to replant trees
37 of 43
how does ecotourism work?
tourism that minimises damage to environment and benefits local people, small number of visitors in at one time, waste is disposed properly, source of income for local people (as guides, transport), make money by tourism = incentive to conserve
38 of 43
how do international hardwood agreements work?
hardwood = tree species, agreements try to reduce illegal logging and promote hardwood from sustainably managed forests
39 of 43
what is an example of an international hardwood agreements?
The Forest Stewardship Council, made up of businesses, non-governmental organisations and individuals. They mark sustainably-sourced timber with logo
40 of 43
how does educating work?
educating international community about impacts of deforestation and encouraging buying of sustainably managed sources, how to reduce impacts, altnerative ways to make money that don't damage environment
41 of 43
how does reducing debt work?
lots of rainforests are in LICs. they borrow money from HICs to fund development schemes or to cope with floods, money must be paid back with interest. HICs can reduce debt for rainforest conservation instead
42 of 43
how does conservation work?
set up national parks and nature reserves = where damaging activities are restricted. countries set up funds which overseas governments can invest in - to conserve. money used to enforce restrictions and promote sustainability
43 of 43

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

what is the soil like in a rain forest?

Back

isn't very fertile - heavy rain washes nutrients away BUT nutrients in humus layer - thin, decays fast in warm, moist conditions

Card 3

Front

what are the plants like in a rainforest?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what are animals like in a rainforest?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what are the people like in rainforest?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all Tropical Rainforests resources »