Treatments and punishments of Crime

What happens when an offender has been found guilty?
They are sentenced
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What could this include?
punishment and treatment or a combination
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What is an aim of sentencing?
retribution focuses solely on punishing the offender
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What are other aims?
it is used as a deterence to discourage offenders from commiting the same crime again
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Where does supporting evidence come from?
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What is the field experiment?
Dutch field experiment
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what did the police tell all the motorists?
that they would be checking tyres and punishing people with worn tyres
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what did they find?
Many more people replaced their worn tyres in that city than ion a control city
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What does this suggest?
Punishment can work as detterent when it is based on vicatrious learnign
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What is wrong with punishment based on retribution?
It is not ethical
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It does not give the offender time to change
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unless what?
the punishment aims to rehabillitate and thus involves treatment
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What does Skinner's rreaserch suggest?
people 'work harder and learn more quckly when rerwarded for doing something right than when punished for doing something wrong.
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What does this suggest?
treating and rehabillitating offenders is better than just punishing them
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What do treatments do?
tell offenders what they should do, whereas punishment merely tells them what they should not do
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What was Skinner in favour of?
Token economy treaments
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What are TETs based on?
the Behaviourst approach's idea of reinforcing and rewarding non criminal and non aggressive behaviour, rather than anti-social behaviour
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What is given to what?
Tokens and praise are given immediately and consistently following positive behaviour
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Such as what rules?
courtesy, sticking to the rules and being sociable
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What are the tokens used for?
cashed in for food, trips.
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For example?
Wakefield prison violent inmates can ear tokens for playing 30 minuits of scrabble and pinp pong, which they can cash in cigarettes
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what happened in 2013?
Graylig (con) has announced in favour of these system based on rewards
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What does he want prisoners to do?
work harder to go from basic, to standard to enhanced levels of priveledge
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where does support for TET come from?
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what happened?
young male offenders living in 3 of the 4 cottages received TET
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What happened to those in the fourth cottage?
they formed the control group
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What behaviour was rewarded in the TET cottages?
cooperation and non-violence were rewarded with tokens
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which could be exchanged for what?
Sweets or home passes
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what did release dates depend on?
the total number of tokens
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What did Hobbs find?
The behaviour of the boys in TET cottages improved compared with the boys in the control cottage
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What does this suggest?
treatments such as TET, which encourage offenders to behave pro-socially are better than punishment alone
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What is one weakness of Token economy treatments?
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It only focuses only on shaping behaviour
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what is behaviour predetermined by?
thinking, and unless the underlying thinking that preceds criminal behaviour is challenged by using CBT
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What are the recidivism rates?
70% of the current 80,000+ of UK prisoners have been in prison before
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What are essential for most prisoners?
drug rehab
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What is another vital treatment for prisoners?
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majority of prisoners have a reading age of below 11
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What does this suggest>
TET on its own is oversimplified because a wide range of treatments are needed to reduce recidivism, if the revolving door problem is to be solved
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What approach also favours treating offenders?
The cognitive approach
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What is based on the idea that behaviour is shaped by thinking?
Cognitive behaviourial therapy
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What do they think about criminals?
Before every criminal act is a criminal thought
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What is the programme for criminals?
Enhanced thinking skills treatments
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What is the aim?
To change the criminals' thinking pattern to alter the cognitive deficits that lead them to offending
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What deficits are involved?
a lack of empathy, the tendency to be impulsive and egocentric, and for thinking to be distorted and irrational
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What is the aim of anger management treatments?
help offenders control their tempers and avoid conflict
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What is the aim of a prisoners sentence?
if it is to make them suffer and to act as a detterent to others then the underlying anger issues which cause many crimes will not be resolved
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What will the offender do?
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What crimes are commited when people are angry?
Domestic violence
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Therefore What is the aim of AMTs such as CALM?
to train criminals to develop ways of predicting and controlling their moods
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Where does support come from?
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Using reconviction rates as the DV, Who did she study?
667 male prisoners who received CBT in the form of ETS or a similar CBT programme, and compared them to a control group
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What did she find?
14% reduction in reconvictions in the CBT group
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What was this compared to?
the control group which did not receive CBT
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What does this suggest?
treatments which reduce cognitive deficits
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What programmes are there?
help offenders control their anger and reduce recidivism and more effective than just punishment
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What are the studies applaued in, in methodology?
more effective than just punishment
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and are thus?
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all of them involve control groups of pps who did not receive any treatment or punishment
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What does this mean?
reliable comparisons can be made
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What do quantitative findings reflect?
effectiveness of the specific treatment or punishment aimed at reducing criminal behaviour
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However, what could there be?
problems with validity because some researchers do no do follow up studies to see whether the effects f the treatment ;asts when the ofender is in the real world
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Card 2


What could this include?


punishment and treatment or a combination

Card 3


What is an aim of sentencing?


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Card 4


What are other aims?


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Card 5


Where does supporting evidence come from?


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