Defined as an act that is against the law. Crime also implies a punishment or at least some treatment to prevent recidivsm.
What constitutes a crime tends to alter according to historical, cultural and power dimensions.
Token economy programmes are a way of t reating offenders in institutions to reward desired behaviour. It is a behaviour modification technique based on operant conditioning
May not be about an action that is an actual crime. it involves actions that citizens dislike abd which could become crime at some stage. Anti social behaviour is any behaviour that affects other people negatively and, in psychology, is often used to mean agressive behaviour.
Means thinking of a whole group as having certain characteristics, usually using evidence from one member of the group and assuming that this evidence is true of all members. Sometimes there is no direct evidence and people stereotype from what they hear about a group.
Evidence given in court or in police investigations by someone who has witnessed a crime or an accident