Transformation of surgery

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When and who dscovered Nitrus oxide(laughing gas)
Humphry Davy in 1799
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When did Horace Wells suggest using laughing gas in dentisry?
1845
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When was the first public demonstration of ether and who carried it out?
1846 by William Morton
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What are the problems with ether?
It is an irritant and fairly explosive
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When did James Simpson discover Chloroform as an anaesthetic?
1847
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Who and when suggested using Cocaine as a local anaesthetic?
William Halsted in 1884
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When was the black period of surgery?
1846-1870
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Define the antiseptic method.
Methods used to kill germs that get near surgical wounds.
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Define the aseptic method.
Surgical methods aim to stop any germs getting near the wound.
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What did Semmelweis suggest?
Using chloride of lime as a hand wash to control infection. However it was very unpleasent and his contract was not renewed.
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Where did Joseph Lister get the idea of using carbolic acid from?
It had been used to keep the smell from sewage works down.
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When did Lister discover carbolic acid could be used as an antiseptic?
1865
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What were the problems with carbolic acid?
It was very unpleasent to get on the skin to breath. So many didn't use it.
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When were antiseptics widely used?
1890
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How is an aseptic operating theatre kept clean?
Instruments are steam sterilised at 120 degrees. Staff sterilise their hands ad wear sterile clothing. Theatres are fed with sterile air and kept very clean.
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When did Karl Landsteiner discover blood groups?
1900
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How did surgeons try to prevent the loss of blood?
Clamps using heat to seal blood vessles but this was very painful. Tying blood vessels with silk, didn't allway work.
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When did people use animals for blood transfusions?
17th century
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What did Landsteiner discover about the blood?
There are four blood groups.
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When was sodium citrate added to blood to stop it clotting? And what were its benefits?
1915 this also allowed blood to be stored for a short period of time
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When was citrate glucose added to blood?
1916
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When was the first blood depot?
1917 at the battle of Cambrai
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How did science influence surgery?
Had a positive impact- Anaesthetics, germ theory, chloroform, x-Rays
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How did technology influence surgery?
Chloroform inhaler, carbolic spray(donkey), steam steriliser, X-Ray machines, hypodermic needle
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How did communications affect the development of surgery?
Meetings, newspaper, medical journals.
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How did war affect the development of surgery?
New types of injuries. Surgens used salt insead of carbolic acid because it was lighter. Smaller mobile X-rays were developed. Prosthetic limbs were improve, Gillies set up plastic surgery unit developed new tchniques like skin grafting.
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When were X-Rays discovered?
1895
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Card 2

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When did Horace Wells suggest using laughing gas in dentisry?

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1845

Card 3

Front

When was the first public demonstration of ether and who carried it out?

Back

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Card 4

Front

What are the problems with ether?

Back

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Card 5

Front

When did James Simpson discover Chloroform as an anaesthetic?

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