Transformation of surgery 2,3,4,5

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  • Transformation of surgery 2,3,4,5
    • Ether
      • 1846 - American surgeon John Warren used it to remove a tumor
      • Robert Liston read about it and used to amputate man's leg
    • Chloroform
      • Ether wasn't ideal because it was unstable in air and irritated the patient's lungs
      • 1847 - James Simpson and colleagues inhaled chloroform.
      • Simpson used it to ease women's labour pains when giving birth
      • Opposition - argued it was untested
      • Religious opposition - argue its against God's will
      • Queen Victoria was given chloroform during birth of her 8th child in 1857
    • Further developments
      • In 1880s surgeons could use local anaesthetic
      • Helmuth Wesse discovered new anaesthetics and a way of injecting them into the bloodstream
      • 1940s curare discovered, this was a relaxant
    • First Antiseptic - Carbolic Acid
      • Ignaz Semmelweiss made doctors and medical students wash hands in calcium chloride
      • Before Germ Theory so couldn't prove why it worked
      • 1861 Joseph Lister read about Pasteur's work on Germ Theory
      • Carlisle Town Council used it to treat sewage
      • 1867 - Carbolic acid spray
      • Opposition
        • Many surgeons opposed. It slowed them down
    • Aseptic Surgery
      • 1878 Robert Koch proved Lister's method were essential to surgery
      • Discovered bacterium caused blood poisoning
      • 1894 William Halstead wore sterilised rubber gloves
      • Severe limits to the operations that was due to blood loss problem which hadn't been solved by 19th Century


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