Topic 4- Inorganic chemistry and periodic types

  • Created by: McTighe
  • Created on: 17-02-18 13:17
What is thermal decomposition?
Where compounds decompose when heated
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What happens to green copper carbonate when heated?
Changes to black copper oxide and carbon dioxide
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What happens to hydrated blue copper sulphate when heated?
Changes to copper sulphate and water vapour
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What happens when an acid mixes with water?
They react to produce hydrogen ions
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What is formed when a acid reacts with a reactive metal?
A salt and hydrogen
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What happens when an alkali mixes with water?
They react to produce OH- ions
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What forms when an acid reacts with a metal hydroxide?
A salt and water
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What is the reaction called when an acid mixes with an alkali?
Neutralisation
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What forms when an acid mixes with a metal carbonate?
A salt, carbon dioxide and water
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What is an ionic precipitation reaction?
A reaction that produces a solid precipitate on mixing two solutions containing ions. The positive ions from one compound combine with negative ions in the other to form an insoluble precipitate.
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Are acids soluble or insoluble in water?
Soluble
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Which metal hydroxides and carbonates are soluble in water?
Sodium and Potassium (And calcium hydroxide slightly)
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What are soluble metal hydroxides and carbonates known as?
Alkalis
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What salts are soluable in water?
All Nitrates All chlorides All sulfates (Calcium sulfate and Silver sulfate are slightly soluble) All potassium, sodium and ammonium salts
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What salts are insoluble?
Silver chloride, lead chloride, Barium sulphate, lead sulphate
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What are the metals in group 1 called?
The alkali metals
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What is the oxidation state of the alkali metals?
+1
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Can the alkali metals be cut with a knife?
Yes because they are soft
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What are they like when they are cut?
They are shiny, but tarnish over quickly when reacts with air
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How are they stored?
In oil to protect from air
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What is the trend in atomic radius with alkali metals?
It increases down the group
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Why does atomic radius increase?
The element has more electrons so more layers, and more repulsion between layers. The electrons shield the pull from the nucleus, so less attraction means the electrons are pulled in less. This means the more protons is outweighed
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What is the trend in ionisation energy with alkali metals?
It decreases down the group
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Why does ionisation energy decrease?
Increase in effective nuclear charge is shielded by more electrons, Causes attraction between nucleus and outer electrons to decrease . Distance between nucleus and outer electrons increases, so attraction weakens -Therefore less energy is needed
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What is the trend in electronegativity in alkali metals?
It decreases down the group
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Why does electronegativity decrease?
The atoms get bigger so the bonding pair are further away from nucleus, so less attraction -This means the nucleus can not pull the pair close, so less electronegative
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What is the trend in melting/boiling point in alkali metals?
It decreases down the group
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Why does melting/boiling point decrease?
As atoms increase in size, nuclei are further away from delocalised electrons, so attraction falls (Metallic bonding) -Outer electron is further away from nucleus so attraction decreases, and more inner electrons cause more shielding
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What is the trend in density in alkali metals?
It decreases down the group (except potassium)
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Why does density decrease?
Depends on how many atoms can be packed in a certain volume (due to atomic radius) -As atomic radius increases down the group,less atoms can fit in the volume -Mass also increases down the group, so sodium atoms weigh more than Lithium atoms
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Describe the alkali metals reactions with water
They all produce a hydroxide and hydrogen gas. The rate and violence increases down the group
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Describe Lithium reaction with water
steadily and produce steady stream of bubbles of hydrogen
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Describe Sodium reaction with water
melts to form a shiny lump which skated around the surface of the water
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Describe Potassium reaction with water
violent, hydrogen catches fire to produce a violet flame
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Describe the alkali metals reaction with chlorine
Form colourless chlorides which are soluble in water
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What do the alkali metals hydroxides look like?
White solids
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Are the alkali metal hydroxide soluble in water?
Yes, and produce an alkali solution
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Do the alkali metals hydroxides become more or less soluble down the group?
More soluable
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Why are the alkali metal hydroxides strong bases?
They fully ionise in water
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What do the alkali metal carbonates look like?
White solids
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Does the solubility of the alkali metal carbonates increase or decrease down the group?
Increases
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Why are the carbonates alkaline?
The carbonate ions remove H+ from water to form hydrogen carbonate ions and hydroxide ions
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Do the alkali metal carbonates decompose on heating?
No, except Lithium carbonate
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Does thermal stability increase or decrease down the group?
Increases
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What do the alkali metal nitrates look like?
White cystalline solids
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Are the alkali metal nitrates soluble in water?
Yes
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Does thermal stability increase or decreases down the group?
Increase
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What products are produce on heating?
A nitrite and oxygen
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Name three reasons why sodium and potassium are used as chemical reagents
the ions are unreactive so act as spectator ions and take no part in reactions They are also soluble in water . Final reason is that ions are colourless in aqueous solutions so do not hide/interfere with colour changes
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Why do elements emit different flame colours?
Energy from flam excites the outer electrons atoms, raising them to a higher energy level. The energy is release by the electron dropping back down, the colour is emitted
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What is the flame colour of sodium?
Bright Yellow
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What is the flame colour of lithium?
bright red
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What is the flame colour of Potassium?
Lilac
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What is the name of the group 2 elements?
Alkaline Earth Metals
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How do group 2 elements differ from group 1?
Harder, denser, and have a higher melting temperature.
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What is the oxidation number for group 2 elements?
2+
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Describe Beryillium
A strong metal with a high melting/boiling point. Very low density, so is a useful alloy with other metals
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Describe Magnesium
A metal manufactured by electrolysis of molten magnesium chloride from seawater or salt deposits
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Describe Barium
A soft silvery, white metal. It is so reactive with air and moisture that is stored under oil
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What is the trend in atomic radius from group 2?
It increases down the group
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Why does the atomic radius increase?
More electrons, so more shells and electrons repelling each other. More shielding so less attraction so less pull on outer electrons. More protons in nucleus is outweighed by shielding
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What is the trend in ionisation energy in group 2?
It decreases down the group
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Why does the ionisation energy decrease?
The increase in nuclear charge is outweighed by more shielding due to more inner electrons. This means distance between outer electrons and nucleus increases, so less attraction
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What is the trend in electronegativity?
It decreases down the group
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Why does electronegativity decrease?
Metal atoms get bigger so the bonding pair is further from the nucleus, so less strongly attracted towards it. The bonds between elements become more ionic
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What is the trend in melting point in group 2?
It decreases down the group (apart from magnesium)
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Why does the melting point decrease?
Weak metallic bonding as ions as larger so less energy required to break intermolecular forces
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Does the reaction with water increase or decrease down the group?
Increases
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Describe magnesium's reaction with water
Reacts very slowly with cold water to produce hydroxide and hydrogen. Reacts much more rapidly in steam to produce oxide and hydrogen
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What is balanced equation for magnesium and cold water?
Mg + 2H2O --> Mg(OH)2 + H2
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What is the balanced equation for magnesium and steam?
Mg + 2H2O --> MgO + H2
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Describe calciums reaction with water
Reacts slowly with cold water to produce calcium hydroxide and hydrogen. The Ca(OH)2 then dissolves but solubility is low, so solution becomes saturate and a white precipitate appears
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Describe strontium and barium reaction with cold water
React very fast with cold water and hydroxides are more soluble so less precipitate forms
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How do the group 2 metals react with oxygen?
They burn in oxygen to form white ionic oxides
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How does magnesium react with oxygen?
Burns very brightly with a white flame and produce solid white oxides
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How does calcium react with oxygen?
Burns brightly in air with a red flame to form a solid white oxide
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How does Strontium react with oxygen?
Similar to calcium but creates a peroxide
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How does Barium react with oxygen?
Burns in excess air or oxygen to produce a green flame and creates a peroxide
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How do the group 2 elements react with chlorine?
They react on heating o form white chlorides
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How does magnesium oxide react with water?
Turns to magnesium hydroxide which is slightly soluble
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How does calcium oxide react with water?
Reacts vigorously with cold water to produce calcium hydroxide
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How does barium oxide and strontium oxide react with water?
Both soluble so no precipitate is formed
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How do the group 2 oxides react with dilute acids?
They react to produce bubbles of hydrogen and a colourless solution. Will produce a salt and water
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Do the group 2 hydroxides get more or less soluble down the group?
More soluble
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Describe magnesium hydroxide in water
Appears to be insoluble in water, but if it shakes with water, it appears to be slightly alkaline
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When is magnesium hydroxide used?
Milk of magnesia, an antacid and laxative
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Describe calcium hydroxide in water
Slightly soluble in water forming an alkaline solution known as limewater
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Why does the limewater test for carbon dioxide work?
The solution of calcium hydroxide reacting with the gas to form a white insoluble precipitate of calcium carbonate
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Describe Barium hydroxide in water
Most soluble of hydroxides
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When is barium hydroxide used?
As an alkali in chemical analysis
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Do the group 2 carbonates get more or less soluble down the group?
Less soluble
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What do the group 2 carbonates produced when decomposed on heating?
An oxide and carbon dioxide
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Does the thermal stability increase or decrease down the group?
Increase
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Are the group 2 nitrates soluble or insoluble in water?
Soluble
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What do the group 2 nitrates look like?
Colourless crystalline solids
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What is produced when the group 2 nitrates decompose?
An oxide, Nitrogen dioxide and oxygen
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Do the group 2 sulphates get less soluble or more soluble down the group?
Less soluble
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What do the group 2 sulphates look like?
Colourless solids
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What does hydrated magnesium sulfate look like?
A colourless solution (Not a solid)
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What is hydrated magnesium sulfate used for?
A laxative
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How is hydrated calcium sulfate produced?
Naturally occurs in Gypsum; Produce on large scale by process that removes sulfur dioxide from flue gases in power stations
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Where does Barium sulfate naturally occur?
Baryte
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What is barium sulfate used for?
It absorbs X-rays strongly so used to diagnose disorders of stomache or intestines. It is insoluble so not dissolved in blood stream
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Flame colour for Beryllium
Colourless
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Flame colour for Magnesium
Colourless
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Flame colour for Calcium
Brick Red
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Flame colour for Strontium
Bright red
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Flame colour for Barium
Green
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What is the definition for thermal stability?
The ease a compound can decompose on heating
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What two factors does thermal stability depend on?
Charge of metal ions (Larger charge less stable) and Size of metal ions (Small ions less stable)
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Which are more thermally stable: Group 1 carbonates or Group 2 carbonates?
Group 1 carbonates
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Why do the nitrates get more stable as you go down the group?
The larger the charge and the smaller its radius, the greater its charge density. The greater the charge density means greater polarising power of the ion,Higher polarising power attracts bonding electrons more strongly cause the bonding to distort
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What does distorting of bonding mean?
They can be broken off the negative ion more easily
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What are the group 7 elements called?
Halogens
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Where are halogens found?
In compounds with metals
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What is the colour and state of chlorine?
Yellow-Green gas
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What is the colour and state of Bromine?
Dark-red liquid
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What is the colour and state of Iodine?
Dark grey solid
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Why do the intermolecular forces increase down the group?
The number of electrons in molecule increases
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What is the trend in atomic radius down Group 7?
It increases down the group
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Why does the atomic radius increase?
There are more layers so more inner electrons. This means more shielding so outer electrons have less attraction. The nuclear charge it outweighed
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What is the trend in electronegativity down the group?
It decreases
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Why does electronegativity decrease?
Fluorine is the most electronegative element. The nucleus is much closer to the bonding pair, with greater effective nuclear charge
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Does melting/boiling point increase or decrease down the group?
They increase down the group
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Why do melting/boiling point increase?
As the molecules get bigger, there are more electrons which can move around so the change of a temporary dipole increases. This means stronger intermolecular forces so more energy needed to break them
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Are the halogens soluble or insouble in water?
Less soluble
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What colour is aqueous chlorine
Green
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What colour is aqueous Bromine
Red
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What colour is aqueous Iodine
Pale brown
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What colour is formed when Iodine dissolves in Potassium Iodide?
Red Brown
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Are the halogens soluble or insoluble in cyclohexane?
Soluble
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What colour does Iodine turn when added to cyclohexane?
Pinky-purple
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How can iodine be confirmed in a solution?
Add hexane to form a purple layer
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Does reactivity increase or decrease down the group?
Decrease
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Why does reactivity decrease down the group?
In order to react, they need to be able to accept more electrons. A large atom is less able to accept electrons due to reduced nuclear charge because of shielding
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What is formed when chlorine reacts with Phosphorus?
Trihalide
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What does chlorine not directly react with?
Carbon, oxygen or nitrogen
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What is special about the reaction of Iodine oxidises hydrogen to form hydrogen iodide?
It is a reversible reaction
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How do Chlorine and Bromine react with Fe(II)?
They oxidize iron in solution to form Iron (iii) ions
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What is the reaction of Iron (II) and chlorine
2Fe2+ + Cl2 --> 2Fe3+ + 2Cl-
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What is added to halides to distinguish them?
Silver Nitrate solution
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What happens to fluoride when silver nitrate is added?
No precipitate forms as it is soluble
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What happens to chloride when silver nitrate is added?
White Precipitate is formed
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What happens to Bromide when silver nitrate is added?
Cream Precipitate is formed
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What happens to Iodide when silver nitrate is added?
Yellow Precipitate is formed
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What is added to dissolve the halide precipitate?
Aqueous Ammonia
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What happens when dilute aqueous ammonia is added to Chloride?
It dissolves
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What happens when dilute aqueous ammonia is added to Bromide?
Nothing, but dissolves using concentrated Ammonia
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What happens when dilute or concentrated ammonia is added to Iodide?
nothing as it is insoluble in all ammonia
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What happens when warm sodium chloride reacts with concentrated sulfuric acid?
Produces colourless hydrogen chloride gas, which produces white fumes in moist air
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What type of reaction is this?
Acid-base
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What happens when Sodium Bromine reacts with concentrated sulfuric acid?
Bromine gas is produced as orange vapour and a colourless sulphur dioxide. NaHSO4 and HBr is produced
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What type of reaction is this?
Redox and acid-base reation
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What happens when sodium Iodide reacts with concentrated sulfuric acid?
Iodide is produced as a purple vapour, sulfur is produced as a yellow solid, bad eggs smell H2S
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Why is no hydrogen iodide produced?
Because iodide ions are a strong reducing agent so they reduce sulfur from +6 in H2SO4 to sulfur and hydrogen sulfide
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What is the trend in reducing ability in the halides?
They increase down the group
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What is a hydrogen halide?
Polar Colourless Compounds of hydrogen and halogens
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How are hydrogen halides similar?
-Colourless gases at room temperature which fume in moist air -Soluble in water, forming acidic solutions -Strong acids
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What happens when you mix a hydrogen halide with ammonia?
Produce a white smoke of an ammonium salt. Ammonia molecules turn into ions NH4+
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How do Chlorine oxoanions form?
When chlorine reacts with water and alkalis. When water dissolves in water it reaact to form weak hydrochloric acid and strong hydrocloric acid
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What is the molecular equation for this reaction?
H20 + Cl2 --> HClO + HCl
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What happens when Chlorine dissolves is potassum hydroxide?
It produces a chlorate and chloride ions
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What is the main ingredient in bleach?
Sodium Chlorate
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What is the equation for bleach?
Cl2 + 2NaOH --> NaCl + NaOCl + H20
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WHat is the reaction of chlorine with hot potassium hydroxide?
3Cl2 + 6OH- --> ClO3- + 5Cl- + 3H2O
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Do Bromine and Iodine reacts in similar to chlorine with alkalis?
They are less stable, so they disproportionate at lower temperatures
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How are carbonate ions and hydrogencarbonate ions identified?
Using aqeuous acid to form carbon dioxide
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How are sulfate ions identified?
Using acidified barium chloride solution
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How ammonium ions are identified?
Using sodium hydroxide and warming to form ammonia
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What happens to green copper carbonate when heated?

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Changes to black copper oxide and carbon dioxide

Card 3

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What happens to hydrated blue copper sulphate when heated?

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Card 4

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What happens when an acid mixes with water?

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Card 5

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What is formed when a acid reacts with a reactive metal?

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