Theories of crime

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  • Created on: 23-01-18 11:23
Bartol and Bartol
1. examines aspects of human behaviour to legal process 2. psychology within the legal system
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Definition of forensic Psyhology
Interaction of psychology and the criminal justice system
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What is the latin of psychology
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what is forum
place of meeting for judicial matters
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first time taken into account the mental states of criminals
1843 Mcnaughten rule
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facial features
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facial features
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body shape
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victorian criminal aspects
endomorph, sticky out ears, thick hair, thin beard, long arms, stubbing shoulders, square chin
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theories of crime
societal, group and socialisation, psychological, community or locality
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societal theories
Marxist, Robert merlons strain theory, feminist
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group and socialization
delinquency subculture, differential association, lifestyle and routine
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chicago school, differential opportunity
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personality, biological
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Marxist class theory
competing groups of class means that crime happen over resources and power
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Robert Mertons strain theory
only a few can achieve societies goals therefore criminal behaviour to get to it , gangs or alcohol drugs and suicide
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feminist theory
men want to keep their power therefore inflict violence on women and by proxy children
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subculture delinquency
due to issues at home and school therefore commit crime
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differential association
sutherland, learnt behaviour ie gangs or parents
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lifestyle or routine
trivial and impulsive due to opportunities
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chicago school
transitional zones
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differential opportunity theory
patterns of crime due to range of opportunities at home
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hostile attributional bias
where they mislabel ones own antisocial behaviour also they react with anger first
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klinefeites syndrome
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what is the chromosome
XYY for aggression dn criminality Arthur shawcross
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social brain
frontal and temporal lobes
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asymmetries in the
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who found amygdala
rein et al
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what is the gene for psychopathy
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psychopathy personality
personality aggressive narcism and socially deviant
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personality aggressive narcism
glib, charming, gradiovuse, lack of remorse, callous, lying, impulsive
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socially deviant
bored, lack of long term goals, gets people to do things, need for stimulation
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antisocial personality disorder
violation of rights of people beginning in childhood or early adolescents
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non contact offences
dogging, voyeurism, scatalogia, exhibitionism, possession manufacture adn distribution of illegal ***********, grooming, progression to other crimes
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sexual gratification from people watching
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watching people have sex
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telephone for gratification
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exposing genitals
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instrumental and expressive
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instrumental ****
assertive enough force to get compliance from the victim
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expressive ****
get a kick out of aggression through humiliation terrorising and abuse
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over six moths have sexual fantasies or urges that are arousing and intense involving a children's under the age of 13
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too young
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three types of ****
statutory, freud, stranger date & aquitance
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consent by choice if she has the capacity and freedom to do so
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guilty if
penetrates without consent or does not reseasonbly believe they have given consent
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How many reported and convicted
15,000 to 1,000
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Type of rapes
power assurance, power assertive, anger retaliatory, anger excitement
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power assurance ****
**** because they are unsure of their masculinity and need to be secured
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power assertive ****
socially skilled not dealing with insecurities then use extreme violence to get compliance
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anger retaliatory
**** because they are angry and want revenge
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anger excitement
key a kick out of abusing and torturing victim
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four behaviours of peadophilia
1. intimacy and social skill deficits 2. deviant and sexual scripts 3. emotional dsyregulation 4. cognitive distortions and anti-social cognitions
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course of conduct directed at a specific person that involves repeated physical or visual proximity by non-consensual communication, verbal or written or implied threats to cause fear in a reasonable person
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stalking typologies
Intimate, Accquitance, public and private
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three stalking behavioural clusters
erotomatic, love obsessional, simple obsession, vegeance
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serial killer typologies
1. visionary 2. mission oriented 3. hedonistic 4. power control
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using information available at a crime scene to generate a profile of the unknown
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Crime scene analysis
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Investigative psychology
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Types of profiling
crime scene, psychological, crime linkage
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technique used by crime scene analysis
top down technique
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top down technique
identifying key characteristics and building a profile
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USA six stages
1. profiling inputs eg photos and reports, victims information and forensic evidence 2. decision process models, murder type, intent victim dn offender risk, escalation, time and location 3. crime assessment: organised and disorganised 4. profile
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carried on
5. investigation 6. apprehension
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organised offender
sexually competence, lives with a partner, charm, might move body after or become police groupie
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organised offender interview technique
direct strategy, accuracy of details
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disorganised offender
low intelligence, unskilled, lives alone, poor hygiene, might turn religious or change job
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crime scene type of profiling
uses information from scene of crime to generate picture of offender
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assess the extent to which suspect fits the known personality template of a certain type
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crime linkage
analytical technique whereby potential crime series are identified by behaviour of the crime
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interview technique for disorganised
interview at night, show empathy
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UK investigative psychology
uses bottom up apprach
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bottom up approach
using psychological theory, research and stats technique: looking at criminal transaction between offender and victim
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geographical mapping
1. locatedness 2. systematic crime location choice 3. centrality 4. comparative case analysis
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spatial typologies
1. hunters 2. poachers 3. trollers 4. trappers
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behavioural consistency hypothesis
assume human behaviour across time and place
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how many suspects confess
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false confessions
25% DNA exoneration and 93% men
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basis for exoneration
identifying real perpetrator 74% and new scientific evidence 46%
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pretend you have more information than you do
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underplay the seriousness
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three types of false confessions
voluntary, coerced compliant, coerced internalised
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confess with no force as they have self belief must have something to give into, gangs, replacing someone else
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coerced compliant
take confession to reduce sentence or best thing for them during interview
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coerced internalised
they start actually believign that they did it
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memory distrust system
Milne and bull - actual start to believe what they are being told
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who did the suggestibility scale
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what is the suggestibility scale
measures how susceptible someone is to coercion during police interrogation
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what teqnique do the US use
9 step Reid technique
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what is the Reid technique
us interrogation technuque
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direct positive confrontation
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Step 2
theme development
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handling denials
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overcoming denials
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procurement and retention of subjects attention
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handling suspects passive mood
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presentign alternative questions
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having suspect orally relate various details to offence
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getting from oral confession into written
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way to see lying
body position, smilling, eye contact, grooming gestures, defensive barrier, illustrators
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cognitive load
lying is more mentally demanding than the truth
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UK interrogation teniques
conversation management and PEACE
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conversation management
1980s by Eric shepherd
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skim, extract, read, review and recall
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pre, within and post
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when was PEACE introduced
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planning and preparation
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engage and expalin
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5 tier trainig scheme
kassin et al 2010
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what did kassin et al
1. mandatory video recording 2. no psychological manipulation 3. awareness of false confession 4. protection of vulnerable suspects 5. training
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forensic stylistics or stylomentry
being able to identify people by their handwriting
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forensic linguistics
looking at spoken language as evidence
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linguistic finger printing
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lexical analysis
the use of the word to describe
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what do you need to make it normalised
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what is the perpetrator
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what is the victim
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estimator variables
accuracy to see remember and report things at teh time of event
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system variables
what effects relevant to the criminal justice system
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alteraction hypothesis
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what did Ainsworth
alteraction hypothesis
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what is the altercation hypothesis
if brain altered in a dramatic way stated that the brain no longer sets in rational place
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what is the coexistence theory
if brain altered and true memories they stay in a place where they can be reformed
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change blindness
w eyes adn optical equipment is seeing but is not digested information because focused on something else
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flash bulb memory
where highly detailed memory of emotional events
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who disagreed with flash bulb memory
Clifford an scott
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loftus and Loftus did what study
weapon focus
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what is the weapon focus affect
where people can not remmeber details of events when weapon involved due to tehir focus on the weapon
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source misattribution theory
misleading infomration attaching to new memories
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effect of language on crim
smashed 40.5 contracted 31.8
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who said you could improve eye witness testimony
Ainsworth 1998
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how do you improve EWT
1. recreate context 2. focused attention 3. multiple retrieval attempt 4. varied retrieval attempt
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what is a cognitive interview
1. intro, 2. open-ended narration 3. probing 4. review 5. close
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what are the memory wars
beign able to retrieve forgotten memories if events correct vs recovered due to inappropriate adn highly suggestive therapeutic techniques
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recovered adn false memories occur via?
repression, suppression, normal forgetting, conscious and unconscious fabrication
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how to recover memories
hypnosis, guided imagery, journaling and dream interpretation
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identifiation biases
foil, clothing, presentation, line up construction, investigator
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foil bias
offender stands out from the foil
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line up contstruction
presumption of suspect in line up
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clothing bias
wearing the same clothing as event
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order of appearance
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unintentionally or intentionally make suspect clear
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what is the attrition gap
time takes between crime committed and punished
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what is attrition rates
how many get convicted
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when was victimology first used?
mendolsohn 1947
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the process of beling victimized to treat someone in an intentionally unfair way (spalek)
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exposure to extreme stressor or traumatic event to which respond with fear helplessness or horror
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three symptoms of victimisation
1. re-experiencing event 2. avoiding reminders 3. hyperarousal
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acute PTSD
less than 3 months
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pluss three month
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delated onset
6 months after
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name of mental illness thing
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what has changed for PTSD
unexpected death of family/ friend not included 2. A2 removed 3. three new symptoms a) D: ngative thoughts of self and world b) E: reckless / destructive behaviour
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manage problems by changing the way you think and act
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how does CBT work
1. contront traumatic events 2. regain control of fear 3. gradually restart avoided activities
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Acute Stress disorder
exposure to actual or threatened trauma and presence of sysmptoms
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intrusion, negative moof, dissacociation, avoidance, arousal
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involuntary thoughts/dreams
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negative mood
persistent inability to experience positive emotion
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sleep distrubance / angry outburst
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exposure, group therapy, interpersoanl therapy, anxiety management
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how is punishment managed
national offender management service
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three justifications for punishment
deterrence, retribution and confinement
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what did Scott say
rehabilitation is a seperate justification for punishment
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what is a separate justification for punishment
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who said we should restore relations between offender victim adn communitiy
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1. improve experience of victim 2. encourage offender to take responsibility 3. repair harm
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what did Novaco do
stress innoculation model
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who created the stress innoculation model
Novaco 1975
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what was the stress innoculation model
1. cognitive preparation 2. skill acquit ion 3. application training
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offending behaviour programmes
1. think first 2. enhanced thinking skils 3. think first 4. agression replacement training (ART) 5. controlling anger and learning to manage (CALM) 6. integrated domestic programme
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ward and steward did what
good lives model
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sex offender treatment progrmames
core, adapted, extended, better lives boosted, rolling
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national offender management service aims
1. protect the public 2. reduce reoffending 3. punish offenders 4. develop offender awarness of detrimental effects of crim 5. rehabilitation offender
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offender treatment (Scott 10)
1. strong theoretical adn empirical foundation 2,taeger medium - high risk oddenders 3. focus on dynamic than static risk factors 4 use social learninf and cognitive behaviour styles 5. address barriers to treatment adn implement as intended
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Canter thought what
biogentic theory of a criminal
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Groth thought what
**** is pseudo - sexual act and a symptom of psychological dysfunction
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clerkly 1941 did what
mask of sanity
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non criminal psychopath
hero , businesses man, president
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Canter found htree patterns of ****
theft , involvement, hostility
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Thornhill and parker
evolitionary thory of **** which is pathological
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**** is the role of socialisation
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**** myth acceptance scale
Burt 1980
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reid technique 85% correct
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police adn criminal evidence act 1984
tape recroning, cautioning and rest periods
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**** due to economic conditions, housing and chronic youth employment
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who was the present
Nick Ross
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most famous F.P songs
The Who
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fear of crime theory
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problems with reid technique
confirmatio nbias and guilt presumptive bias
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what did langer do
profiling hitler
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what is an hostage incident
(a) perpetrator holds on or more persons in a location known to the police against their will
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wihtout hostage refusing to surrender
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What did Mark Knapps 1984 say
relational deelopent key, ongoing relationship where you establish rapport and an interpersonal dialogue
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cross-cultural comparisons and cultural uniqueness
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knaaps model
(1) incorporation of crisis manament adn intervention in current broad spectrum approaches
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bheavioural change stairway model
process towards peaceful non-lethal resolution
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when was forensic psychology changed
1977 - 1999
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how to become a foresic psychologist
Graduate basis for chartered membership, society accredited masters in fp and state 2 of societies qualification in fb
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who stated the fear victimization paradox
Clark 2004
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Gerbner created what thoery
Cultivation threory
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what did Shrum do
Availability heuristic theory
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what is the availability heuristic theory
the availability of information about crime
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what did winkle do
cognitive theory
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what is the cognitive theory of crime
subjective victimization risk adn perceieved negative impact
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what was gibbs famous for
social moral reasoning theory
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what did bowlby do
Maternal deprivation hypothesis
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what is the maternal deprivation hypothesis
secure, ambivalent and avoidant attachments
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the history of emptied souls
guggenbuhl Craig
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sexual abuse campaign
me too
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child *********** illegal things?
viewing downloading story or distributing
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what is consent simple as
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how many women adn men ***** per year
85,00 owmen 12,000 men
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theories of ****
macro soocilogiccal and individual psychological
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mofels of paedophilia and child molestation
precoditions, psychotherapeutic or cognitive and sexualisation
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causes of violence
biological, evolutionary, socialisation, cognitive, situational
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cnater had what crimes
Railway ****** and KIller
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how to detect deception
galvanic skin response, cardiovascular activity, breathing patterns
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conversation management
1. Pre tinterview (SE3R 2. within interview (greeting, explanation, mutual activity closure) 3. Post-interview (Interview summeray ; investigation)
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Reid investigative inerview was
coersive interrogation
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where as us
investigative interview
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which artist had a song featured at the end of Week 1's lecture
fun lovin criminals
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what theory of paedophilia is associated with the notion of revictimisation
sexualisation model
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four main categories of ****** type according to the massachusetts treatment centre
pervasively angry , sexual , vindictive
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Definition of forensic Psyhology


Interaction of psychology and the criminal justice system

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What is the latin of psychology


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what is forum


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first time taken into account the mental states of criminals


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