Theories of crime

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: lawtjes
  • Created on: 23-01-18 11:23
Bartol and Bartol
1. examines aspects of human behaviour to legal process 2. psychology within the legal system
1 of 231
Definition of forensic Psyhology
Interaction of psychology and the criminal justice system
2 of 231
What is the latin of psychology
3 of 231
what is forum
place of meeting for judicial matters
4 of 231
first time taken into account the mental states of criminals
1843 Mcnaughten rule
5 of 231
facial features
6 of 231
facial features
7 of 231
body shape
8 of 231
9 of 231
victorian criminal aspects
endomorph, sticky out ears, thick hair, thin beard, long arms, stubbing shoulders, square chin
10 of 231
theories of crime
societal, group and socialisation, psychological, community or locality
11 of 231
societal theories
Marxist, Robert merlons strain theory, feminist
12 of 231
group and socialization
delinquency subculture, differential association, lifestyle and routine
13 of 231
chicago school, differential opportunity
14 of 231
personality, biological
15 of 231
Marxist class theory
competing groups of class means that crime happen over resources and power
16 of 231
Robert Mertons strain theory
only a few can achieve societies goals therefore criminal behaviour to get to it , gangs or alcohol drugs and suicide
17 of 231
feminist theory
men want to keep their power therefore inflict violence on women and by proxy children
18 of 231
subculture delinquency
due to issues at home and school therefore commit crime
19 of 231
differential association
sutherland, learnt behaviour ie gangs or parents
20 of 231
lifestyle or routine
trivial and impulsive due to opportunities
21 of 231
chicago school
transitional zones
22 of 231
differential opportunity theory
patterns of crime due to range of opportunities at home
23 of 231
hostile attributional bias
where they mislabel ones own antisocial behaviour also they react with anger first
24 of 231
klinefeites syndrome
25 of 231
what is the chromosome
XYY for aggression dn criminality Arthur shawcross
26 of 231
social brain
frontal and temporal lobes
27 of 231
asymmetries in the
28 of 231
who found amygdala
rein et al
29 of 231
what is the gene for psychopathy
30 of 231
psychopathy personality
personality aggressive narcism and socially deviant
31 of 231
personality aggressive narcism
glib, charming, gradiovuse, lack of remorse, callous, lying, impulsive
32 of 231
socially deviant
bored, lack of long term goals, gets people to do things, need for stimulation
33 of 231
antisocial personality disorder
violation of rights of people beginning in childhood or early adolescents
34 of 231
non contact offences
dogging, voyeurism, scatalogia, exhibitionism, possession manufacture adn distribution of illegal ***********, grooming, progression to other crimes
35 of 231
sexual gratification from people watching
36 of 231
watching people have sex
37 of 231
telephone for gratification
38 of 231
exposing genitals
39 of 231
instrumental and expressive
40 of 231
instrumental ****
assertive enough force to get compliance from the victim
41 of 231
expressive ****
get a kick out of aggression through humiliation terrorising and abuse
42 of 231
over six moths have sexual fantasies or urges that are arousing and intense involving a children's under the age of 13
43 of 231
too young
44 of 231
three types of ****
statutory, freud, stranger date & aquitance
45 of 231
consent by choice if she has the capacity and freedom to do so
46 of 231
guilty if
penetrates without consent or does not reseasonbly believe they have given consent
47 of 231
How many reported and convicted
15,000 to 1,000
48 of 231
Type of rapes
power assurance, power assertive, anger retaliatory, anger excitement
49 of 231
power assurance ****
**** because they are unsure of their masculinity and need to be secured
50 of 231
power assertive ****
socially skilled not dealing with insecurities then use extreme violence to get compliance
51 of 231
anger retaliatory
**** because they are angry and want revenge
52 of 231
anger excitement
key a kick out of abusing and torturing victim
53 of 231
four behaviours of peadophilia
1. intimacy and social skill deficits 2. deviant and sexual scripts 3. emotional dsyregulation 4. cognitive distortions and anti-social cognitions
54 of 231
course of conduct directed at a specific person that involves repeated physical or visual proximity by non-consensual communication, verbal or written or implied threats to cause fear in a reasonable person
55 of 231
stalking typologies
Intimate, Accquitance, public and private
56 of 231
three stalking behavioural clusters
erotomatic, love obsessional, simple obsession, vegeance
57 of 231
serial killer typologies
1. visionary 2. mission oriented 3. hedonistic 4. power control
58 of 231
using information available at a crime scene to generate a profile of the unknown
59 of 231
Crime scene analysis
60 of 231
Investigative psychology
61 of 231
Types of profiling
crime scene, psychological, crime linkage
62 of 231
technique used by crime scene analysis
top down technique
63 of 231
top down technique
identifying key characteristics and building a profile
64 of 231
USA six stages
1. profiling inputs eg photos and reports, victims information and forensic evidence 2. decision process models, murder type, intent victim dn offender risk, escalation, time and location 3. crime assessment: organised and disorganised 4. profile
65 of 231
carried on
5. investigation 6. apprehension
66 of 231
organised offender
sexually competence, lives with a partner, charm, might move body after or become police groupie
67 of 231
organised offender interview technique
direct strategy, accuracy of details
68 of 231
disorganised offender
low intelligence, unskilled, lives alone, poor hygiene, might turn religious or change job
69 of 231
crime scene type of profiling
uses information from scene of crime to generate picture of offender
70 of 231
assess the extent to which suspect fits the known personality template of a certain type
71 of 231
crime linkage
analytical technique whereby potential crime series are identified by behaviour of the crime
72 of 231
interview technique for disorganised
interview at night, show empathy
73 of 231
UK investigative psychology
uses bottom up apprach
74 of 231
bottom up approach
using psychological theory, research and stats technique: looking at criminal transaction between offender and victim
75 of 231
geographical mapping
1. locatedness 2. systematic crime location choice 3. centrality 4. comparative case analysis
76 of 231
spatial typologies
1. hunters 2. poachers 3. trollers 4. trappers
77 of 231
behavioural consistency hypothesis
assume human behaviour across time and place
78 of 231
how many suspects confess
79 of 231
false confessions
25% DNA exoneration and 93% men
80 of 231
basis for exoneration
identifying real perpetrator 74% and new scientific evidence 46%
81 of 231
pretend you have more information than you do
82 of 231
underplay the seriousness
83 of 231
three types of false confessions
voluntary, coerced compliant, coerced internalised
84 of 231
confess with no force as they have self belief must have something to give into, gangs, replacing someone else
85 of 231
coerced compliant
take confession to reduce sentence or best thing for them during interview
86 of 231
coerced internalised
they start actually believign that they did it
87 of 231
memory distrust system
Milne and bull - actual start to believe what they are being told
88 of 231
who did the suggestibility scale
89 of 231
what is the suggestibility scale
measures how susceptible someone is to coercion during police interrogation
90 of 231
what teqnique do the US use
9 step Reid technique
91 of 231
what is the Reid technique
us interrogation technuque
92 of 231
direct positive confrontation
93 of 231
Step 2
theme development
94 of 231
handling denials
95 of 231
overcoming denials
96 of 231
procurement and retention of subjects attention
97 of 231
handling suspects passive mood
98 of 231
presentign alternative questions
99 of 231
having suspect orally relate various details to offence
100 of 231
getting from oral confession into written
101 of 231
way to see lying
body position, smilling, eye contact, grooming gestures, defensive barrier, illustrators
102 of 231
cognitive load
lying is more mentally demanding than the truth
103 of 231
UK interrogation teniques
conversation management and PEACE
104 of 231
conversation management
1980s by Eric shepherd
105 of 231
skim, extract, read, review and recall
106 of 231
pre, within and post
107 of 231
when was PEACE introduced
108 of 231
planning and preparation
109 of 231
engage and expalin
110 of 231
111 of 231
112 of 231
113 of 231
5 tier trainig scheme
kassin et al 2010
114 of 231
what did kassin et al
1. mandatory video recording 2. no psychological manipulation 3. awareness of false confession 4. protection of vulnerable suspects 5. training
115 of 231
forensic stylistics or stylomentry
being able to identify people by their handwriting
116 of 231
117 of 231
forensic linguistics
looking at spoken language as evidence
118 of 231
linguistic finger printing
119 of 231
lexical analysis
the use of the word to describe
120 of 231
what do you need to make it normalised
121 of 231
what is the perpetrator
122 of 231
what is the victim
123 of 231
estimator variables
accuracy to see remember and report things at teh time of event
124 of 231
system variables
what effects relevant to the criminal justice system
125 of 231
alteraction hypothesis
126 of 231
what did Ainsworth
alteraction hypothesis
127 of 231
what is the altercation hypothesis
if brain altered in a dramatic way stated that the brain no longer sets in rational place
128 of 231
what is the coexistence theory
if brain altered and true memories they stay in a place where they can be reformed
129 of 231
change blindness
w eyes adn optical equipment is seeing but is not digested information because focused on something else
130 of 231
flash bulb memory
where highly detailed memory of emotional events
131 of 231
who disagreed with flash bulb memory
Clifford an scott
132 of 231
loftus and Loftus did what study
weapon focus
133 of 231
what is the weapon focus affect
where people can not remmeber details of events when weapon involved due to tehir focus on the weapon
134 of 231
source misattribution theory
misleading infomration attaching to new memories
135 of 231
effect of language on crim
smashed 40.5 contracted 31.8
136 of 231
who said you could improve eye witness testimony
Ainsworth 1998
137 of 231
how do you improve EWT
1. recreate context 2. focused attention 3. multiple retrieval attempt 4. varied retrieval attempt
138 of 231
what is a cognitive interview
1. intro, 2. open-ended narration 3. probing 4. review 5. close
139 of 231
what are the memory wars
beign able to retrieve forgotten memories if events correct vs recovered due to inappropriate adn highly suggestive therapeutic techniques
140 of 231
recovered adn false memories occur via?
repression, suppression, normal forgetting, conscious and unconscious fabrication
141 of 231
how to recover memories
hypnosis, guided imagery, journaling and dream interpretation
142 of 231
identifiation biases
foil, clothing, presentation, line up construction, investigator
143 of 231
foil bias
offender stands out from the foil
144 of 231
line up contstruction
presumption of suspect in line up
145 of 231
clothing bias
wearing the same clothing as event
146 of 231
order of appearance
147 of 231
unintentionally or intentionally make suspect clear
148 of 231
what is the attrition gap
time takes between crime committed and punished
149 of 231
what is attrition rates
how many get convicted
150 of 231
when was victimology first used?
mendolsohn 1947
151 of 231
the process of beling victimized to treat someone in an intentionally unfair way (spalek)
152 of 231
exposure to extreme stressor or traumatic event to which respond with fear helplessness or horror
153 of 231
three symptoms of victimisation
1. re-experiencing event 2. avoiding reminders 3. hyperarousal
154 of 231
acute PTSD
less than 3 months
155 of 231
pluss three month
156 of 231
delated onset
6 months after
157 of 231
name of mental illness thing
158 of 231
159 of 231
what has changed for PTSD
unexpected death of family/ friend not included 2. A2 removed 3. three new symptoms a) D: ngative thoughts of self and world b) E: reckless / destructive behaviour
160 of 231
manage problems by changing the way you think and act
161 of 231
how does CBT work
1. contront traumatic events 2. regain control of fear 3. gradually restart avoided activities
162 of 231
Acute Stress disorder
exposure to actual or threatened trauma and presence of sysmptoms
163 of 231
intrusion, negative moof, dissacociation, avoidance, arousal
164 of 231
involuntary thoughts/dreams
165 of 231
negative mood
persistent inability to experience positive emotion
166 of 231
sleep distrubance / angry outburst
167 of 231
exposure, group therapy, interpersoanl therapy, anxiety management
168 of 231
how is punishment managed
national offender management service
169 of 231
three justifications for punishment
deterrence, retribution and confinement
170 of 231
what did Scott say
rehabilitation is a seperate justification for punishment
171 of 231
what is a separate justification for punishment
172 of 231
who said we should restore relations between offender victim adn communitiy
173 of 231
1. improve experience of victim 2. encourage offender to take responsibility 3. repair harm
174 of 231
what did Novaco do
stress innoculation model
175 of 231
who created the stress innoculation model
Novaco 1975
176 of 231
what was the stress innoculation model
1. cognitive preparation 2. skill acquit ion 3. application training
177 of 231
offending behaviour programmes
1. think first 2. enhanced thinking skils 3. think first 4. agression replacement training (ART) 5. controlling anger and learning to manage (CALM) 6. integrated domestic programme
178 of 231
ward and steward did what
good lives model
179 of 231
sex offender treatment progrmames
core, adapted, extended, better lives boosted, rolling
180 of 231
national offender management service aims
1. protect the public 2. reduce reoffending 3. punish offenders 4. develop offender awarness of detrimental effects of crim 5. rehabilitation offender
181 of 231
offender treatment (Scott 10)
1. strong theoretical adn empirical foundation 2,taeger medium - high risk oddenders 3. focus on dynamic than static risk factors 4 use social learninf and cognitive behaviour styles 5. address barriers to treatment adn implement as intended
182 of 231
Canter thought what
biogentic theory of a criminal
183 of 231
Groth thought what
**** is pseudo - sexual act and a symptom of psychological dysfunction
184 of 231
clerkly 1941 did what
mask of sanity
185 of 231
non criminal psychopath
hero , businesses man, president
186 of 231
Canter found htree patterns of ****
theft , involvement, hostility
187 of 231
Thornhill and parker
evolitionary thory of **** which is pathological
188 of 231
**** is the role of socialisation
189 of 231
**** myth acceptance scale
Burt 1980
190 of 231
reid technique 85% correct
191 of 231
police adn criminal evidence act 1984
tape recroning, cautioning and rest periods
192 of 231
**** due to economic conditions, housing and chronic youth employment
193 of 231
who was the present
Nick Ross
194 of 231
most famous F.P songs
The Who
195 of 231
fear of crime theory
196 of 231
problems with reid technique
confirmatio nbias and guilt presumptive bias
197 of 231
what did langer do
profiling hitler
198 of 231
what is an hostage incident
(a) perpetrator holds on or more persons in a location known to the police against their will
199 of 231
wihtout hostage refusing to surrender
200 of 231
What did Mark Knapps 1984 say
relational deelopent key, ongoing relationship where you establish rapport and an interpersonal dialogue
201 of 231
cross-cultural comparisons and cultural uniqueness
202 of 231
knaaps model
(1) incorporation of crisis manament adn intervention in current broad spectrum approaches
203 of 231
bheavioural change stairway model
process towards peaceful non-lethal resolution
204 of 231
when was forensic psychology changed
1977 - 1999
205 of 231
how to become a foresic psychologist
Graduate basis for chartered membership, society accredited masters in fp and state 2 of societies qualification in fb
206 of 231
who stated the fear victimization paradox
Clark 2004
207 of 231
Gerbner created what thoery
Cultivation threory
208 of 231
what did Shrum do
Availability heuristic theory
209 of 231
what is the availability heuristic theory
the availability of information about crime
210 of 231
what did winkle do
cognitive theory
211 of 231
what is the cognitive theory of crime
subjective victimization risk adn perceieved negative impact
212 of 231
what was gibbs famous for
social moral reasoning theory
213 of 231
what did bowlby do
Maternal deprivation hypothesis
214 of 231
what is the maternal deprivation hypothesis
secure, ambivalent and avoidant attachments
215 of 231
the history of emptied souls
guggenbuhl Craig
216 of 231
sexual abuse campaign
me too
217 of 231
child *********** illegal things?
viewing downloading story or distributing
218 of 231
what is consent simple as
219 of 231
how many women adn men ***** per year
85,00 owmen 12,000 men
220 of 231
theories of ****
macro soocilogiccal and individual psychological
221 of 231
mofels of paedophilia and child molestation
precoditions, psychotherapeutic or cognitive and sexualisation
222 of 231
causes of violence
biological, evolutionary, socialisation, cognitive, situational
223 of 231
cnater had what crimes
Railway ****** and KIller
224 of 231
how to detect deception
galvanic skin response, cardiovascular activity, breathing patterns
225 of 231
conversation management
1. Pre tinterview (SE3R 2. within interview (greeting, explanation, mutual activity closure) 3. Post-interview (Interview summeray ; investigation)
226 of 231
Reid investigative inerview was
coersive interrogation
227 of 231
where as us
investigative interview
228 of 231
which artist had a song featured at the end of Week 1's lecture
fun lovin criminals
229 of 231
what theory of paedophilia is associated with the notion of revictimisation
sexualisation model
230 of 231
four main categories of ****** type according to the massachusetts treatment centre
pervasively angry , sexual , vindictive
231 of 231

Other cards in this set

Card 2


Definition of forensic Psyhology


Interaction of psychology and the criminal justice system

Card 3


What is the latin of psychology


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


what is forum


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


first time taken into account the mental states of criminals


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Visual System resources »