Theories - Feminism

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What idea does this idea start with?
we live in a male-dominated societies and this should be changed
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1st Wave feminism
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When did feminist ideas develop?
Mid 1800 with the growth of the suffrage movement
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In 1918, which women could vote?
'women of prosperity' over the age of 30
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In 1928, what was this extended to?
all women over the age of 21
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When was the 2nd Wave of feminism ?
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What was this in conjunction with?
the Women's liberation movement in the 1960/70s
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What did these feminists do in terms of government legislation?
influence it by demanding equal rights with men
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Radical feminists
The personal is political
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When did radicals begin to develop as a more 'self-conscious theory?
The women's liberation movement 1960/1950
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What is the key aspect of radical feminism?
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Who wrote sexual politics (1970)?
Kate millet
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Why did Millet's work is an important piece of radical work?
because it introduces the concept of patriarchy
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Millet says that women are ..... and men .... women and women are ......
oppressed, dominate, subordinate
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Why is Patriarchal oppression direct and personal?
it not only occurs in the public sphere of work and politics but in the private sphere of the family, domestic labour and sexual relationships
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Thus, why do radical feminists believe in personal relationships being private
men dominate women, even in the home
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Who wrote the 'dialects of Sex' (1970)?
Shuksmith Firestone
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What does Firestone believe that the sexual oppression is in terms of fundamentals?
the fundamental form of oppression
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Why is Firestones views different to Marxist feminists?
she doesn't attach the primary importance of economic differences to explaining gender differences and according to Fireatinm Marxists ignore the issue of reproduction for inequality
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Explain what firestone sees as the main difference between men and women?
We are created differently and are not equally privileged
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Why does Firestone believe there is inequality in the workplace?
biological factors
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What does Firestone believe that has loosened the chains of women's biological slavery but not yet freed them entirely?
Birth control
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What does she argue women will be able to enjoy total equality and freedom?
When babies can be conceived and developed outside of the womb
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Who argues that patriarchal power is developed through personal relationships and often through sexual or physical violence or the threat of it?
Susan Brownmiller
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Explain why this has the threat of controlling women that are just those who are victims of it?
because the threat of **** or sexual assault makes women fearful of being out alone after dark
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The radical's solution for ending patriarchy
Separatism, conscious raising and political lesbianism
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Who comes up with the idea of separatism?
Greer (2000) with Matrilocal households
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Why do radicals advocate separatism?
because men's oppression of women is through imitating domestic sexual relationships
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Another solution to ending the patriarchy is conscious raising, what is this?
through the sharing of experiences in the women-only consciousness groups, women come to see other women and share the same problems which can lead to collective action
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What is political lesbianism?
not 'sleeping with the enemy' argue heterosexual relationships are oppressive and that lesbianism is the only non-oppressive form of sexuality
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What percentage of **** victims had been ****d by their partner or ex-partner?
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what percentage of people that had been victims of domestic abuse more than 4 times were women?
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Why do Marxist criticise Radical feminists?
assert that class inequality is a more fundamental form of oppression in a capitalist society than gender
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Who argues separatism and political lesbianism will never work because there will always be a heterosexual attraction so isn't a particle solution?
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What do statistics show about domestic violence?
been a decrease
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Liberal feminism
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What does Liberal feminists have there roots in wich stresses the prinsipes of justice, citizenship, human rights and democracy?
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What do they belive about these values?
women have not always been offered them
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What do liberal feminists favor to solve gender inequality?
political action and reform, favoring educational straggles and formal legislation changes as. it will provide women with
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What cultural changes do they call for?
changes in socialization into typical gender roles as they believe this is a barrier to equality
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Who comes up with a 'feminist mystique'?
Betty Frieden
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What is the Feminine myth that Friden believes holds women back?
that marriage and wifehood would is where women will find true fulfillment
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Why does Frieden believe the myth causes 'feminist mystique'?
these two things often leave women feeling quite depressed
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Friend argues motherhood and wifehood do not necessarily lead women to feel fulfilled, so what does Frieden believe will give women equality, power, and personal fulfillment?
to enter paid employment and pursue a career just as men would
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What has friend been cticised about the hardship of what that she fails to address?
`that it os difficult combiding motherhood with a career
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What idea does Friedend does not challenge?
that women should be the primary carers of children in the first place
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Why do Black feminists accused her of ethnocentricity?
historically, black women have always worked but this didn't liberate them
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On general, what liberal feminists stand for
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In what institutions do they aim for equality in?
poltical, economic and social
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who do they believe befits from gender inequality?
no one
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What do they believe has produced rigid, inflexible expectations for both men and women?
socialization into gender roles
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What do they aim to eradicate of men and women found in things like children's books and mass media?
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What is the key aim for Liberal feminists?
equality in the workplace
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Name 2 key legislations that liberal feminists believe show how gradual change is coming about?
Equal Pay Act 1970, Sex discrimination Act (1975)
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However, despite the increase in women working, what is there still?
a gender pay gap (17%)
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What is there not still in the workplace?
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What did radical feminist find in the media still?
a lot of sexist stereotyping eg. adverts and prawnography
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What area is still overwhelmingly male-dominated?
political domain
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What do Marsits argue about liberals?
they need to acknologe the negiave influne communism has on women
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Marxist feminists
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What do they believe women subordination is inextricably linked to?
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How are they like Radical feminists?
Believe the housewife/mother role as a source of oppression to women and they are dismissive of liberal feminism
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What do Marxists argue is females' primary role and how does this relates to capitalism?
as an unpaid homemakers, making them economically dependent on the family
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What are the 4 important things subordination performs for capitalism (same as the family)?
Women are a source of cheap exploitable labour, women are a reserve army of labor, women reproduce the labour force, women absorb anger
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Why are women cheap exploitable labor for capitalism?
because they can be paid less as it is assumed they are particularly dependent on their husband's income
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Who comes up with the theory of women are a reserve army of labor?
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What happens in times of economic boom and slump?
In boom women are brought into the labour force but in slump, the are the first to go
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marginal workers as its assumed their primary role in the home
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Who comes up with women reproduction the labour force?
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what is their role?
to socialize and nurturing the next generation of workers
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How else do women maintain the current generation?
husbands as no extra cost of capitialism
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Who comes up with Women absorb anger?
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How does this help capitalism but also be a reason for domestic violence?
wives soak up their husband's frustrations at feeling alienation at work and being wage slaves
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Why does it mean it is in women's best interests to overthrow capitalism?
links between women's subordination and capitalsm
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However, why does Hartman accuse Marxism as being 'sex blind'?
because capitalism explains why it exploits workers but not directly women
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Who attacks women as Marxists specifically looks at W/C men arguing that they benefit from their wives just as much as capitalism does?
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Why can women being a reproduced workforce be a criticism?
because with migrant workers are cheaper
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Post Feminism
poststructuralist feminism
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What do Poststructualst feminism regard all standards of feminism, as?
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Why did they believe this ?
because they tend to see all women as the same
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Thus, what di they fail to acknowledge?
diversity in women's experiences and problems
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Provide an example of this in a global context
the preoccupation of womens issues in the west is irrelevant to women in poorer countries , where access to water is more of a pressing issue
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Who argues that the feminist movement has largely been dominated bt white w/c women who have been reduced into a single entity?
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thus, why can't women never adopt the enlightenment project?
not all women share the same experiences
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What do post-femisits want to deconstruct to reveal how women's oppression is different in diverse cultures and ages?
discourses surrounding 'womenhood'
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For example, what is the Indian womanhood constructed by?
religious discourse
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What is the western discourse?
the media idea of a predominate 'the ideal women'
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What is a discourse?
ways of thinking, seeing and speaking something. The world is made up of different discourses such as religious scientific , political, medical and so on
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However, who argues there is similarities between all women?
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What is this similarity?
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For example, what are women at greater risk of than men?
domestic abuse
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Summary of feminism
see women as oppressive in different ways, although all the 'traditional' strands so see women role as being pivotal in their exploitation
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What idea does this idea start with?


we live in a male-dominated societies and this should be changed

Card 3


1st Wave feminism


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Card 4


When did feminist ideas develop?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


In 1918, which women could vote?


Preview of the front of card 5
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