The main political and social challenges facing America 1910-1929

  • Created by: KAustria
  • Created on: 31-05-14 15:54
What was the Open door policy?
Free admission of immigrants
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Why did the government introduce the open door policy?
To help colonise the country
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Why did people move to the US?
1. To follow family who had moved to the US 2. Live the dream of owning property 3. Escape economic hardship 4. Avoifd further economic hardship 5. To escape the devastation of war-torn Europe 6. Sense of advanture
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How many eastern Europeans entered the US between 1900-1914?
13 million
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Why did some American become concerned over the immigrants?
1. they felt 'swamped' 2. Immigrants were poor, illiterate and could not speak English 3. Immigrants had different religious and cultural backgrounds which led to the fear and hatred. 4. Fear that communist ideas (1917 Russia Bolshevism)
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What idea started to grow doe to increase immigrants?
Xenophobia and the belief that the ideal American citizen was a WASP
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What were the 4 measures the US congress passed in order to restrict immigration?
1. Literacy Test (1917) 2. Emergency Quota (1921) 3. National Origins Act (1924) 4. Immigration Act (1929)
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Describe the Emergency Quota Act
Introduced in 1921. 3% quota. Only allowed 357,000 immigrants to enter per year.
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Describe the National origins Act?
Introduced in 1924. Reduced the quota down to 2%. Allowed more northern europeans to enter,
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Describe the Immigrations Act
Introduced in 1929. This restricted immigrants o 150,000 per year. No Asians were allowed. Western and Northern Europeans were allocated 85% of the spaces.
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What events contributed the the growth of xenophobia?
1. 1919 - 3600 strikes - communists revolution? 2. 1919 - An Anarachist bomb was planted the home of Attorney General Mitchell Palmer 3. April 1919 - Bomb planted in Milwaukee which killed 10 people 4. September 1920 - Bomb on Wall Street
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who organised the Palmer Raids?
Attorney-General, Mitchell Palmer, Head of the US department of Justice
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How many people were arrested in the palmer raids?
6000 were suspected communists in 36 cities.
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What as the important case which highlight the injustice and discrimination immigrants faced?
Sacco and Vanzetti
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Why were Sacco and Vanzetti arrested?
Nicola Sacoo and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were arrested on the 5th May 1920 for carrying out a robbery at a shoe factory in Massachusetts in which 2 people died.
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What happened during the trial of Sacco and Vanzetti?
Opened on May 1921. 61 eyewitnesses identified the men whilst 107 witnesses said they were elsewhere.
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Who were the religious fundamentalists?
Christian Fundamentalists typically lived in the southern states under the Bible Belt. They fbelieved every word in the Bible was fact. They were against the modernisation in the cities.
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What was the Monkey Trial?
Traditional and Modern Americans Clashed over the argument over Darwin's theory of Evolution.
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What is the story behind the Monkey Trial?
Biology Teacher, john Scopes from Dayton, Tennessee ignored the ban of teaching evolution and was put on trial in July 1925.
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How many states banned the teaching of evolution and why?
6 States, This was because Bible Belt states believed in the concept of creationism.
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What did the monkey trial show about the Religious Fundamentalists?
They were trying to curb the freedom of thought.
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In 1910, How many black people lived in America?
12 million Black Americans with 75% living in the southern states.
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What movement occurred between 1916 and 1920?
The Great Migration was the movement of 1 million Black Americans t the northern states in search for a new job and a better standard of living.
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Who were the NAACP?
The National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People. Founded in 1920 by William Du Bois 90,000 members in 300 branches. non-violent methods through legal system
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Who were the UNIA?
The Universal ***** Improvement Association. Founded in 1914 by Marcus Garvey. Peak membership of 250,000. Encouraged to return to Africa. Ended in 1925 due to Garvey arrest
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What was the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924?
NAtive Americans were granted US citizenship.
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What was the treatment of Native Americans like?
1. Forced to live on poor reservations 2. encouraged to integrate with whites 3. Children sent to boarding schools to introduce them to the modern way of living.
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When did the KKK revive and why??
1915 by William J Simmons following the release of the film Birth of a Nation
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Who were the KKK?
White racist supremacists group who were only open to WASPs. They declined any foreigners. Dressed in white robes, Met in the evenings. Carried American flags and burning cross. Tight grip on politicians
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Why did the KKK membership rise?
Concerns over immigration together with the Red Scare
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What was the KKK membership in 1920 and 1925?
1920: 100,000 1925: 5 million
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Why did the KKK decline?
Grand Dragon on Indiana, David Stephenson. was convicted for **** and mutilation of a woman. When on trial he spoke about the illegal activities which brought the klan brought bad publicity.
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WHo was the IMperial Wizard?
Hiram Wesley Evans
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Why was prohibition introduced?
1. Increase in crime and lawlessness 2. Pressure from The Women's temperance Christians Union and the Anti-Saloon League 3. Consumption tied to domestic violence 4. Inefficiency of work 5. Lowered moral standards and undermined traditional values.
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Who were the main supporters of Prohibition?
1. Women's Christian Temperance Union 2. Religious Fundamentalists 3. Anti-Saloon League
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What were the 5 main difficulties in enforcing prohibition?
1. Alcohol was driven underground 2. bootlegges 3. Speakeasies 4. Moonshiners 5. Weakness of government
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Who were bootleggers?
A person who supplies and distributed illegal alcohol (e.g Al Capone)
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Who was a moonshiner?
Someone who distilled their own illegal alcohol
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What were speakeasies?
An illegal drinking shop. By 1925 100,000 sprang up in NY
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What law was passed on the 20th January 1920?
The 18th Amendment - Illegal to sell alcohol.
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What was the Volstead act?
Set down penalties for breaking the 18th Amendment
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How many people died form drinking poisoned alcohol in1926?
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Why did prohibition end?
1. Deaths due to alcohol poisoning 2. Cure to the economic depression - jobs industries
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When did he prohibition end?
December 1933 - FDR introduced the 21st Amendment
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What other problem sprouted from prohibition?
1, Organised crime - bootlegging, gangs, prostitution, gambling dens
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Who was the most notorious gangster of the 1920s?
Al Capone
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What city did Al Capone control?
Chicago in 1925
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How many people did Al Capone kill?
200 rivals between 1925 - 1929
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What happened in the St Valentine's Day Massacre?
1929. Attempt to kill gang leader Bugs Moran. Authorities could not find direct evidence against Alcapone.
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What marked the end of the 'Age of the Gangsters'?
1931- Al Capone was found guilty for tax evasion.
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Who was president Between 1921-23?
President Warren Harding
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Who was the leading figure of the Teapot Scandal?
1. Albert Fall - Secretary of the Interior
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What did Albert Fall do?
Leased government land for oil reserves at teapot Dome, Wyoming. He received $400,000 form oil companies for personal gain.
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Who were sources of finance in the Teapot scandal?
Harry Sincalir of the Mammoth Oil Company and Edward Deheny of the Pan - American Petroleum and Transport company.
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What happened in 1922 which affected Albert fall?
Details of the secret deals were leaked. Fall was found guilty in 1927.
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What were problems in society?
1. Immigration 2. Relgious Fundamentalists 3.Racial inequality 4.Prohibition 5.Organised Crime
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How many immigrants arrived in the US in 1919?
40 million
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What happened on the 8th November 1923?
hitler and 600 SA men burst into meeting led by von Kahr. At gun point von Kahr was forced to agree to his plan of takeover.
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What happened on the 9th November 1923?
Hitler and 2000 SA mean marched through munich they were met by the Police.
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How many were killed due to the Munich Putsch?
16 Nazis 4 Policemen
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What happened in Hitler's trials in Feb 1924?
He gained publicity. Spoke about November Criminals, Jewish Bolshevists.
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what was importance of the munich Putsch?
1, Hitler realised that he had to change his strategy through building on publicity 2. Completed his autobiography which contained his political views
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What were ideas expressed in mein Kampf?
1. Volksgmeichschaft- The Creation of People's community 2. Treaty of Versaille 3. Social Dawinsim 3. Anti-semitism 4. Anti-Communist 5. Lebensraum
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How many seats did the Nazi's win in the 1924 elections?
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How many seats did the Nazi's win the 1928 electiond?
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Why did the government introduce the open door policy?


To help colonise the country

Card 3


Why did people move to the US?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


How many eastern Europeans entered the US between 1900-1914?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Why did some American become concerned over the immigrants?


Preview of the front of card 5
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