The Cold War (Unit 3)

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During the late 1960s and 70s the Soviet and American leaders tried to ease tensions in their relationship. In the West what was the name of this policy?
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Name two treaties signed by Russia and America that are good examples of détente.
Two treaties that are good examples of détente are the 1967 Outer Space Treaty and the 1968 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.
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What did the 1967 Outer Space Treaty do?
The 1967 Outer Space Treaty stopped the arms race as it pledged that no nuclear weapon would be placed in space by either superpower.
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What did the 1968 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty agree?
The 1968 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty agreed that neither superpower would supply nuclear weapons to other states or help other states develop nuclear weapons. This stopped the conflict engulfing other areas of the world.
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When was the Strategic Arms Limitation (SALT1) Treaty formed?
SALT 1 was created in 1972.
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What did SALT1 do?
Imposed limits on nuclear capability of Russia and the USA. The USA and USSR agreed : there would be no further production of strategic ballistic missiles, submarines carrying nuclear weapons would only be introduced when existing IBMs were obsolete.
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What treaty was agreed as part of SALT 1?
The ABM (Anti-Ballistic Missile) Treaty was agreed. Both sides were limited to two ABM systems so that neither side had an edge in the arms race.
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When did negotiations for SALT 2 begin?
Negotiations for SALT 2 began in 1972.
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Why were negotiations regarding SALT 2 difficult?
The West German government were concerned that further arms reductions would leave their territory undefended. Right-wing American Congressmen thought détente had gone too far- reluctant to agree to further compromises with the USSR.
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When was SALT 2 eventually signed by President Carter and Soviet Premier Brezhnev?
SALT 2 was signed in June 1979.
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What was the Apollo Soyuz Mission?
The Apollo- Soyuz Mission took place in 1975 and was a joint space mission between the USA and USSR. An American Apollo space craft and a Russian Soyuz spacecraft docked high above the Earth.
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Representatives from how many countries attended the Helsinki Conference?
Representatives from 35 countries attended the Helsinki conference. They cam from all of Europe and USSR, USA and Canada.
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What were the three main issues spoken about in the Helsinki conference?
The three main issues were: Security, co-operation and human rights.
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In the 1975 Helsinki Agreements what was aggreed with regards to Security?
All dispute were to be settled peacefully , no country would interfere with the international affairs of another country, Countries would inform each other about any big military manoeuvres, all country boundaries were accepted (east and west Ger)
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In the 1975 Helsinki Agreements what was agreed with regards to Co-operation?
They agreed to co-operate on a number of levels e.g. through trade (USA= buy oil from USSR. USSR= buy wheat from USA), industrial co-operation, scientific co-operation, educational co-operation.
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In the 1975 Helsinki Agreements what was agreed with regards to Human Rights?
IT was agreed that countries should respect human rights such as: Freedom of speech, freedom of movement, freedom of religion and freedom of information.
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What happened int he Kabul Revolution of April 1978?
There was an overthrow of government. The Afghan capital of Kabul wanted to 'build socialism in Afghanistan'. The new communist president Mohammed Taraki soon became an ally of the USSR.
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Why did PResident Taraki have to accept Amin as the prime minister?
Because a civil war had broken out between the government and islamic fighters.
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When did Amin supporters assassinate Taraki?
In October 1979 Amin supporters assassinated Taraki and Amin became president of Afghanistan.
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What happened in December 1979?
The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Brezhnev didn't trust Amin and feared that Afghanistan would become an Islamic state and influence nearby Soviet republics. Soviet troops killed Amin and Karmal was declared president.
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How long did the Soviet invasion last? What were the consquences?
The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan lasted 10 years and around 1.5million people died , including 15,000 Russian soldiers.
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What did the Carter Doctrine argue?
It argued that the USA wouldn't wouldn't allow the Soviet Union to gain control of territory in the oil-rich Middle East.
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What steps did Carter take to try and remove Soviet troops from Afghanistan?
Formed an alliance with China and Israel to support Afghan rebels. The CIA provided weapons and funds for the Mujahideen (an Islamic organisation against the USSR). He stopped trade with the USSR. He ended diplomatic relations with the USSR.
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In response to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan what did the US senate refuse to ratify?
In response to the Soviet invasion of the USSR the US Senate refused to ratify SALT2.
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At the time of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan by how much did Carter increase US defence spending?
He increased defence spending by 5%. Carter also ordered the US military to come up with plans for winning a nuclear war.
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How many countries boycotted the 1980 Moscow Olympic Games?
Around sixty countries boycotted the games. The boycott was led by Carter . The US government set pup an alternative to the Olympics called the Olympic boycott games, it was held in Philadelphia.
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IN retaliation to the 1980 boycott how many countries boycotted the 1984 Los Angeles Olympic Games?
The USSR and 14 other communist countries boycotted the games and organised the Friendship Games as a communist alternative.
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When was the Second Cold War?
The 'Second Cold War' describes the period between 1979-85 which marked a new low in relations. The public was extremely concerned by the prospect of a nuclear war.
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When did Reagan become the president of America?
Reagan became president in 1981.
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When was Reagan's Evil Empire speech? What did he say? Who was it to?
Reagan's 'Evil Empire' speech: March 1983 to the National Association of Evangelicals. Said the Cold War= fight between good and evil, America fought with Gods blessing. Urged people not to 'ignore the aggressive impulses of an Evil Empire'.
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What was SDI or 'Star Wars'?
Reagan planned to launch lots of satellites equipped with powerful lasers which would intercept Soviet Missiles from space and destroy them before they reached America. This meant America would be able to win a nuclear war.
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What Treaty's terms did SDI break?
The 1967 Outer Space Treaty's terms were broken by SDI.
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What was the Soviets response to SDI?
SDI= large problems for the USSR. THe Soviet economy = not wealthy enough to keep up, they were behind America in terms of technology as Soviet leaders= suspicious of computers they were concerned they would be used to undermine communism.
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How long was Gorbachev the leader of the Soviet Union for?
Gorbachev led the Soviet Union from 1985 until its collapse in 1991.
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What was the Chernobyl crisis? How did it effect Soviet and American relations?
In April 1986 the nuclear reactor in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (Ukrain) exploded.Initially Gorbachev organised a cover story, USA=unconvinced and pressured Gorbachev to tell the truth about the scale of the disaster. Worsened relations.
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What was perestroika?
Perestroika (restructuring)- economic reforms designed to make the Soviet economy more efficient.
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What was Glasnost?
Glasnost (openness)-censorship of the press was to be relaxed.
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What happened at the 1985 Geneva Summit. How did it effect relations between the leaders?
November 1985= Geneva summit. Reagan still insisted that the USA developed Star wars. This was the main issue however, Reagan and Gorbachev liked each other and met without advisers or aids.
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What happened at the 1986 Reykjavik Summit? How did it effect relations?
There were initial agreements but fundamental differences (SDI) Gorbachev painted a bleak picture of Soviet-American relations.
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What happened in Washington DC in December 1987.
There were good super power relations with the superpowers agreeing for the first time to destroy all nuclear weapons within the range of 500-5500 kilometres= INF treaty agreed.
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What happened at the 1988 Moscow summit?
At the 1988 Moscow summit the INF treaty was formally ratified and Gorbachev suggested that he was going to remove Soviet forces from Afghanistan. Further talks about reduction of arms.
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What happened at the New York SUmmit?
It was the last summit between Reagan and Gorbachev. President-elect George Bush attended. Gorbachev wanted to complete START (Strategic Arms Reduction Talks) before Bush came into power. Bush and his advisors =less trusting of Gorbachev.
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What happened at the Malta summit?
The Malta summit took place in 1989 and was between Bush and Gorbachev. Gorbachev assured Bush that he would never start a hot war against the USA. Signified THE END OF THE COLD WAR.
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What year was the START treaty signed?
START was signed in 1991 by Bush and Gorbachev. It set limits to the number of nuclear weapons . Both sides agreed to reduce their holdings of nuclear weapons by about a third. (they destroyed them)
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Name two treaties signed by Russia and America that are good examples of détente.


Two treaties that are good examples of détente are the 1967 Outer Space Treaty and the 1968 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.

Card 3


What did the 1967 Outer Space Treaty do?


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Card 4


What did the 1968 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty agree?


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Card 5


When was the Strategic Arms Limitation (SALT1) Treaty formed?


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