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Which president replaced Roosevelt and in what year?
Harry S. Truman in 1945
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why was the war between America and Russia after 1945 called the Cold War ?
because actual fighting never broke out
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What were the major differences between America and Russia?
Politics (capitalism/communism), lifestyle (freedom and a two-party democracy/secret police and a one-party state), aims (recovery of Germany/reparations/buffer zone of friendly states)
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What were the two conferences held?
Yalta and Potsdam
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Who was present at the Yalta conference and when was it?
February 1945/ Stalin, Churchill & Roosevelt
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Who was present at the Potsdam conference and when was it?
July 1945/ Stalin, Truman & Atlee
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What were the aims of the Potsdam and Yalta conferences?
To discuss what to do with Europe once the war was over/
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What happened at Yalta?
Germany was to be split into 4 zones/ Germany was to pay reparations/ government of national unity was set up in Poland/declaration of liberated europe/russia would help against Japan
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What happened at Potsdam?
Open disagreements: details of boundaries between zones/amount of reparations Russia wanted to take/Stalin arrested non-communist leaders in Poland/Truman dropped the atomic bomb
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What was the significance of VE day?
There was no longer any need to maintain unity against Hitler
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What was the percentages agreement?
The agreement between Churchill and Stalin that the Soviets could have a 'sphere of influence'
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What did Churchill declare to have come down across Europe?
An iron curtain
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What was cominform/comintern?
an alliance of Communist countries designed to make sure they obeyed Soviet rule
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How did Stalin achieve power across Eastern Europe?
non-communists were executed (bulgaria)/ non-communist leaders arrested (poland)/ controlled the radio, the army and the police (czechoslovakia)
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When was the German Democratic Republic set up?
1949
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What was the Truman Doctrine?
containment of communism
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What was containment?
stopping the Soviet getting any more powerful
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What was the Marshall Plan?
the European Recovery Programme/ to stimulate the European economy by providing them with food, clothing, everything from "medicine to mules"
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How did Stalin respond to the Marshall Plan?
he forbade cominform countries to apply for Marshall Aid
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Why was there a crisis in Berlin 1948?
Bi-zonia (England and USA)/ London conference to which Russia is not invited/ France, America and England combined their zones into West Germany/A new currency was introduced
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What were the results of the Berlin crisis?
Germany was divided in two till 1990/Iron curtain became permanent/Arms race/NATO was set up to resist Russia
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Who replaced Stalin?
Nikita Khrushchev
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What was Khrushchev's aim?
to create a 'peaceful-coexistence' and 'de-stalinise' Eastern Europe
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What was an example of the arms-race?
ICBMs
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What was the Warsaw Pact?
A military alliance of communist countries set up by Khrushchev to rival NATo
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What other ways did America and Russia compete?
Sports, space race- Russia had the first satellite and sent the first man into orbit/ America sent the first man to fly in space/ Kennedy promised to land a man on the moon/ Both sides spied on each other
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Why was the Berlin Wall built?
Khrushchev demanded that the US leave West Berlin within 6 months. They refused
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When was the Berlin Wall built?
1961
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What increased tensions in 1962?
America put missiles in Turkey
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What did Castro do on coming to power that led to America banning Cuban sugar exports?
He nationalised American companies in Cuba
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Which American organisation funded, trained, armed and transported the invasion of Cuba in April 1961
The CIA
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Where did the failed invasion force land?
Bay of Pigs
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Why did Stalin blockade West Berlin?
he hoped to drive the Western Powers out of Berlin altogether/opposed the new currency&economic recovery in the Allied zones/ a threat to the communist way of life
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What happened at the Bay of Pigs invasion?
1,400 exiles landed on Cuba/ Exiles were met by 20,000 Cuban troops/ They were all captured or killed within days/ Kennedy was humiliated
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Why did Khrushchev send missiles to Cuba in 1962?
he wanted the missiles as bargaining power/ he wanted to test the inexperienced Kennedy and push him as far as possible/ concerned about the missile gap between the USSR and the USA
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

why was the war between America and Russia after 1945 called the Cold War ?

Back

because actual fighting never broke out

Card 3

Front

What were the major differences between America and Russia?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What were the two conferences held?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Who was present at the Yalta conference and when was it?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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