History Revision Cards
How racism was challenged in US 1950's
Brown v Topeka - 1954 - Board of Education
Montgomery Bus Boycott - 1955, December
Little Rock School
9 Black children going into a white public school - 1957
Berlin Wall -
Was built in 1961 over night.
In 1962 two more layers of bricks were added aswell as barbed wire.
In 1977 a new wall was made which was alot higher and had a tube at the top to make it harder to climb over.
Wall came down in 1989.
Cuban Missile Crisis -
In 1962 the soviet admitted that it was supplying cuba with arms.
In 1962, October - A U-2 spy plane took photographs of missile sites in Cuba.
On the 24th of October, Kennedy began a blockade to stop the soviet ships and as the soviets got near the blockade, they turned around.
Why the soviet Union put the missiles on Cuba?
To Bargin with the USA
To trap the USA
To test the USA
To get the upper hand in the arms race
The revolution of Hungary started in 1956.
The Hungary government was overthrown.
The new government that took over decided to leave the warsaw pact.
In November, 4 - The soviet union attacked Hungary and took over Budapest and many other regions of Hungary.
In 1967 the old Stalinist Leader was forced to resign.
Alexander Dubek became leader of the czech communist party.
He proposed a policy of socialism which gave more freedom of speech, less censorship and a reduction in the activities of the secret police.
He reassured Brezhnev that Czechoslavakia would not leave the warsaw pact.
In 1968, to the amazement of the Czech and the outside world, soviet tanks moved into Czechoslavakia
There was little resistance and Dubcek was removed from power
Solidarity - Poland
Solidarity - 1980
The government annonced increases in the price of meat. Strikes followed.
Workers, led by Lech Walesa, put forward 21 demands to the government, including free trade unions and the right to strike. They also started a free trade union called solidarity.
The government agreed to all 21 of solidaritys demands,
In September, 1980 - Solidaritys membership grew to 3.5 million.
In October, 1980 - The membership grew to 7 million and was recognised by the government.
Membership grew to 9.4 million - more than a third of all the workers in Poland.
September, 1981 - Lech Walesa was elected chairman of Solidarity.
In 1982 - Solidarity was declared illegal.
Collapse of Detente - renewal of the cold war
Revolution in Iran 1979 - Iran became anti-American and strongly communist increasing tention between the two superpowers.
New nuclear weapons - In 1977 the USSR began to replace out-of-date missles with new ones. In responce Carter allowed the US to develop the Cruise missile.
Collapse of SALT 2 - Even though the main terms were set out in 1974, they were signed in 1979. By that time the relations between USA and USSR had deteriorated so much that the US refused.
Ronald Reagan 1981 - Reagan disliked communism and the USSR, he called it the evil empire. He supported anti-communist forces in Afghanistan. He also made up the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) which was a project of satellites and lasers.
During 1979, Afghanistan became very unsettled. Muslim opposition groups attacked the new Afghan government which was both non-muslim and pro-soviet.
Soviet troops were supposed to support the Afghan army against the muslim groups which were anti-communist. They had two problems - The afghan army was not as good as they thought 2) They were faced by a rebel force called the Mujaheddin.
The mujaheddin were supplied by the USA and China, who opposed the soviet invasion. They were given launchers to destroy soviet aircrafts and arms to help fend off the soviet invasion.
In 1985, a new soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev decided to withdraw from Afghanistan. Agreement was reached in Geneva in 1988 and the last soviet soldiers left Afghanistan in 1989.