- Created by: T Colby
- Created on: 11-04-17 22:01
What branch of government mostly controls the Federal Bureaucracy?
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Who is at the top of the structure of the Federal Bureaucracy?
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Who is second from the top of the Federal Bureaucracy?
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What is the overall structure of the Federal Bureaucracy (from top to bottom)?
President, Vice-President, Executive Departments, Executive Agencies, Independent Regulatory Commissions (IRCs) and Government Corporations.
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How many tiers are in the hierachy Executive Departments?
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What are the 4 main departments in the first tier of the Executive Departments?
State Department, Treasury Department, Justice Department and the Defense Department.
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What are the Heads of Executive Departments called apart from the Justice Department?
Secretaries of State
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What is the Head of the Justice Department called?
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Who chooses the Heads of Executive Departments?
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Who confirms the nominees appointed as Heads of Executive Departments by the President?
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What is another key role of the Heads of the Executive Departments?
They are also ex officio members of the President's Cabinet.
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What does this mean about Heads of Executive Departments also being ex officio members of the President's Cabinet?
They are there because of the position that they hold as heads of department.
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State 11 Executive Departments in the second tier.
Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, Labor, Energy, Education, Health and Human Services, Housing and Urban Development, Transportation, Veteran Affairs and Homeland Security departments.
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What are almost indistinguishable from Executive Departments in the Federal Bureaucracy structure?
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Who are the Heads of Executive Agencies?
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What are Directors of Executive Agencies not that Heads of Executive Departments are?
They are not ex officio members of the Cabinet.
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Who chooses the Directors of Executive Agencies?
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Who confirms the nominee appointments as Directors of Executive Agencies by the President?
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What sometimes happens to Executive Agencies regarding their position in the Federal Bureaucracy structure?
Sometimes have been upgraded to Executive Departments e.g. Housing and Veterans' Affairs.
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What are the 3 main Executive Agencies in the Federal Bureaucracy structure?
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Federal Reserve Board ('the Fed') and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
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Who created EPA and when?
President Nixon in 1970.
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What is the key role of EPA?
Regulates air, water and pollution controls, deals with the clean up and disposal of hazardous wastes and toxic substances and regulates drinking water, noise and radiation.
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Who currently leads 'the Fed'?
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What is the key role of 'the Fed'?
Conducts the monetary policy of the Federal Government, oversees the supervision of banks and enforces the laws ton protect consumers in financial dealings.
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What is the key role of NASA?
Conducts space exploration and aeronautics research.
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What are the key undertakings of NASA to date?
Conducted the Moon Programme in the 1960s but the loss of Challenger in 1986 and Columbia in 2003 have led to questions about its efficiency and viability.
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What are Independent Regulatory Commissions administratively independent of?
Administratively independent of all three branches of the Federal Government.
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Where do IRCs operate from?
Operate behind barriers created by Congress to shield them from direct Presidential control.
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In practice, where are IRCs subject to pressures from?
Subject to pressures from the White House, Congress and the industries they are meant to regulate.
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List areas that IRCs might regulate.
Railways, airlines, radio and television, banks, Wall Street, labour unions, business corporations and federal elections.
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When did the Federal Government establish Government Corporations?
In the 1930s
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Why did the Federal Government establish Government Corporations?
To perform principally commercial functions that might otherwise have been carried out by the private sector.
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What are the 3 main Government Corporations in and at the bottom of the Federal Bureaucracy structure?
United States Postal Office, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) and AMTRAK.
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When was the United States Postal Office created?
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What is the key role of the FDIC?
Insures savings deposits in commercial banks.
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What is the key role of AMTRAK?
Runs the nationwide passenger train system.
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How can Executive Agencies become 'lapdogs'?
They serve the interests of those that they're supposed to be overseeing.
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How can Executive Agencies override the public interest?
They try to expand their powers and responsibilities at the expense of other agencies.
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How can Executive Departments 'miss the big picture'?
Their interests take priority over national interest.
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How can Executive Agencies be frustrating for Presidents that want to see radical policy changes?
They act slowly and cautiously with a tendency to resent change.
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What do Executive Agencies tend to forget when applying rules and regulations?
Tend to forget the concerns that they impact.
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Why is bureaucracy seen as inhuman?
Because it is dedicated to form and process.
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What is a problem with the departments, agencies, commissions and Federal Bureaucracy overall?
It uses resources less efficiently when compared to private sector organisations as there is a lack of accountability for their actions.
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What is a strong tri-relationship that can develop in the Federal Bureaucracy?
A strong relationship can develop between a pressure group, a congressional committee and a federal agency.
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What is the consequence for policy when a tri-relationship is formed in the Federal Bureaucracy?
Policies are made, not to the public's interest but that of the three parties involved.
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Give an example of a tri-relationship.
Defefense contractors, the House and Senate Armed Services Committees and the Defense Department. This could lead to a large and maybe unnecessary defence budget.
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Whose wishes are federal appointees likely to serve over the President's?
Instead serve the wishes of the Federal Bureaucracy.
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What is a key reason why some people think that the Federal Bureaucracy is not running efficiently regarding finance?
Pay of civil servants is down to length of service as opposed to job performance.
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How did the Founding Fathers see the Presidency?
Both Head of State and Head of Government, Founding Fathers created a Singular Executive, President is indirectly elected and the President is limited and checked.
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What did President Theodore Roosevelt state about the President being both Head of State and Head of Government?
"I am both King and Prime Minister"
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How is the President greeted at public functions?
With a military band playing 'Hail to the Chief'
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The White House is more like what in the UK than 10 Downing Street?
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What part of the Constitution effectively states that the Founding Fathers created a Singular Executive?
Article II: "The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America"
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What is the consequence of a Singular Executive regarding the Cabinet?
The President's Cabinet cannot be a decision making body.
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What did President Truman have on his desk in the Oval Office regarding the fact that the Cabinet cannot be a decision making body?
A sign that read simply: "The buck stops here"
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What is meant by the President is indirectly elected?
The President has to be chosen by the Electors in the Electoral College. However, this has been adapted into a direct election but the mechanism of the Electoral College still exists.
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Why is the President limited and checked?
The Founding Fathers feared tyranny particularly by the executive branch. So they hedged the President with checks and balances.
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What did political commentators Cronin and Genovese argued in 1988 about checks and balances on the executive branch?
"The men who invented the presidency did not wish to create a ruler. Instead, they hoped to create conditions where leadership might from time to time flourish. A ruler commands; a leader influences. A ruler wields power; a leader persuades."
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Why is the President 'an important part of an orchestra' rather than a 'one man band'?
The President does not work alone. He is part of a bigger administration in the executive e.g. the Cabinet and the Executive Office of the President.
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Why is the President 'under the thumb' rather than 'the most powerful man in the world'?
The President can seem like the most powerful man in the world, particularly as the USA appears like a world superpower, but in reality the President is limited by checks and balances, especially in Congress.
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Why is the President the 'Bargainer-in-Chief' rather than the 'Commander-in-Chief'?
The President is particularly powerful in regards to foreign policy but he is much more limited to domestic policy and often has to persuade and bargain with Congress to get what he wants.
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What factors determine the success of a President?
Country in debt, being indecisive, lack of inspiration, out of touch with citizens, confused with national security, lack of confidence in himself, following up on manifesto pledges, congressional support, pressure groups, the public, etc.
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State some of President Obama's widely regarded successes.
The economy had 13.7 million new jobs, the Affordable Care Act provided around 20 million people with health insurance, world came together at the Paris climate talks to reduce greenhouse emissions, nuclear deal with Iran and same-sex marriage.
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State some of President Obama's widely regarded failures.
The American people, the poor handling of terrorism and not dealing with US debt.
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What are Obama's top 10 successes according to Obama?
10. The economy. 9. "More Americans getting health insurance coverage." 8. "America's global leadership on climate change." 7. U.S.-Cuba relations. 6. Iran nuclear deal. 5. "Standing strong against terrorism." 4. Trans-Pacific Partnership. ...
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What are the top 3 of Obama's successes according to Obama?
3. Bipartisan budget and education deals. 2. The legalisation of same-sex marriage. 1. "The American people."
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State 4 powers/reasons for evaluating how poweful the US President is.
Commander-in-Chief, most powerful man in the world, one man band and international treaties.
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Discuss POTUS's power of being Commander-in-Chief.
The US has the world's largest military budget with the most advanced weaponry. Limits on POTUS's power are not great as he can get special permission from Congress to act in a certain way.
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Discuss POTUS being the most powerful man in the world.
Nationally is restricted by states and Congress. Internationally the most powerful man in the world.
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Discuss POTUS being a one man band.
The executive is made up of various different people and organisations.
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Discuss POTUS's power of international treaties.
E.g. the 2015 Iran Deal.
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Who or what can affect how powerful the President is?
The media, staff the President chooses, crises, the public, the Federal Bureaucracy, pressure groups, SCOTUS and Congress.
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How can the media affect how powerful the President is?
What the media has to say affects how powerful the President is e.g the media swayed public support to end the Vietnam War.
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How does the staff that the President chooses affect how powerful the President is?
E.g. President Clinton was overwhelmed by his Chief of Staff Thomas 'Mack' McClarty.
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How does crises affect how powerful the President is?
President Carter was limited by the Iranian Hostage Crisis in 1979. The failed attempts to rescue the hostages damaged his support. Moreover, George W. Bush's popularity rocketed after 9/11.
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How does the public affect how powerful the President is?
Nixon had poor public opinion ratings. Clinton survived public scandals due to public support.
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How does the Federal Bureaucracy affect how powerful the President is?
President is the only person in the Federal Bureaucracy despite the Vice-President made up of various agencies, departments, boards and commissions.
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How do pressure groups affect how powerful the President is?
There was pressure group resistance to President Clinton's healthcare reforms due to the Health Insurance Association of America. Eventually congressional opinion turned against Clinton's proposals.
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How does SCOTUS affect how powerful the President is?
SCOTUS can declare actions of the executive as unconstitutional. E.g. SCOTUS vs. Richard Nixon (1974) in which SCOTUS ordered Nixon to hand over White House tapes as he was unconstitutionally impeding the investigation of the Watergate Affair.
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What key power does SCOTUS possess checking the executive's power?
Judicial Review in which SCOTUS can declare that an executive action is unconstitutional.
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How does Congress affect how powerful the President is?
Whether the government is divided or undivided, overturning POTUS's veto etc.
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What Republican particularly thinks that Obama ignored federal law the most out of all presidents.
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What is Congress's power regarding foreign policy?
Declare war, agree budgets, investigate and the Senate's power to confirm appointments and ratify treaties.
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Define 'Imperial presidency'.
A term, popularised by the book of that title written in 1973 by Arthur Schlesinger, used to refer to a presidency characterised by the misuse and abuse of the powers of the presidency. It referred to secrecy in foreign policy and Congress.
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What are Congress's 7 checks on POTUS's/the executive's power?
Amend, delay or reject the president's legislative proposals, override the president's veto, amend his budgetary requests through the power of the purse, check Commander-in-Chief power through power of the purse and declaring war, refuse to ratify...
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Continue as above:
refuse to ratify treaties negotiated by the president, reject nominations made by the president, investigate the president's actions and policies and impeach and try the president with possible removal from office if found guilty.
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How imperial was President Franklin Delano Roosevelt?
Very imperial as he was allowed to break from Congress often in WW2 despite Congress declaring war on Japan in 1941. However, the role of the Federal Government somewhat expanded in the era.
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How imperial was President Truman?
Sent troops to South Korea without congressional authority (1950); very imperial.
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How imperial was President Eisenhower?
Sent 14,000 troops to Lebanon without congressional authority in 1958; very imperial.
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How imperial was President Kennedy?
Launched an attack on the Bay of Pigs in Cuba without congressional authority in 1961; very imperial.
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How imperial was President Johnson?
In 1964, Congress signed a virtual blank cheque, the Tonkin Gulf Resolution, to allow President Johnson to take "all necessary means" to handle Vietnam; not very imperial.
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How imperial was President Nixon?
Not very imperial as he was impeached by the Senate and found guilty, despite bombing Cambodia in 1970 without congressional approval.
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How imperial was President George W. Bush?
Bush became imperial after 9/11 due to the Patriot Act.
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What are the factors affecting how imperial a president is?
Presidential style, weakness of Congress and aggression with foreign policy.
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Why might some consider Obama to have been an imperial president?
He launched around 3000 airstrikes on Iraq and Syria without congressional approval.
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How is POTUS success rate of bargaining and persuasion measured?
Presidential Support Score
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What does the Presidential Support Score specifically measure?
How often the President won in recorded vores, on which he took a clear position, in the House and in the Senate.
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How is the Presidential Support Score expressed?
As a percentage.
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At was point in their presidency is a President most successful?
At the start.
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What is the minimum percentage Presidential Support Score at the start of roughly all presidencies?
80% in the first year.
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What happens to a president's Presidential Support Score throughout their presidency generally?
Their percentage score drops.
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What factors affect the value of the Presidential Support Score?
Boredom from the public, more errors over time, certain events increase support, divided or undivided government and types of bills.
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What does the Presidential Support Score not measure?
The importance of votes. E.g. POTUS's score may be high if he has won lots of small, trivial votes even when losing major ones.
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How can presidents avoid low Presidential Support Scores?
By simply not taking positions on votes they expect to lose.
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What is an example of a president avoiding a low Presidential Support Score by simply not taking a position on a vote they expect to lose?
President Carter declared a position on 306 votes in 1978.
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What type of bills does the Presidential Support Score not count?
Doesn't count bills that fail to come to a vote on the floor of either chamber.
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What is an example of the Presidential Support Score not counting a bill that failed to come to a vote on the floor in either chamber?
Clinton's high score in 1994 (86.4%) took no account of the fact that his flagship Healthcare Reform Bill failed even to reach the floor in either chamber.
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What is the early period of a President's term/2 terms called immediately after election?
The 'honeymoon' period.
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What are the 5 key roles of the Vice-President?
Presiding Officer of the Senate, granted the power to break a tied vote in the Senate, given the task of counting and then announcing the result of the Electoral College votes, VPOTUS becomes POTUS upon the death, resignation or removal of POTUS.
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What role does the VPOTUS rarely perform?
Presiding Officer of the Senate because they deputise to junior members to chair debates.
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Give an example of a VPOTUS breaking a tied vote in the Senate.
**** Cheney cast a tie breaking vote in April 2001 to protect President George H.W. Bush's $1.6 trillion tax cut.
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Give an example of a VPOTUS counting and then announcing the result of the Electoral College votes.
In 2001 the outgoing VPOTUS Al Gore had to announce his own defeat in the Presidential Election.
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How many times has the VPOTUS become POTUS after the natural death of the POTUS?
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How many times has a VPOTUS become POTUS after the assassinations of POTUS?
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How many times has VPOTUS become POTUS after the resignation of POTUS?
1 time after the resignation of President Nixon after the Watergate Affair.
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What does the 25th Amendment (1967) state about the VPOTUS?
The VPOTUS can become acting POTUS if the POTUS is declared, or declares himself, disabled.
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In what instance was the 25th Amendment enacted?
Enacted in 2007 when Cheney became acting POTUS for just over 2 hours while W. Bush had a colonoscopy.
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Who selects the VPOTUS?
Selection made by the party's presidential candidate before the opening of the party's national convention.
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What does a 'balanced ticket' mean?
VPOTUS is chosen by a party's presidential candidate as a running mate before the election as a 'joint ticket'. The ticket is normally balanced in terms of political experience, age, gender, geographical region, race etc.
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How was President Obama's ticket balanced?
At 65, Senator Joe Biden, Obama's running mate balanced out Obama's youthful 47 years; he was also white.
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What is the importance of the VPOTUS in the joint ticket of a presidential candidate?
Can attract different voters to vote for the ticket but don't necessarily have a major voting influence.
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What problems might be encountered with checks and balances?
Gridlock, partisanship, divided government and tyranny.
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What did Professor S.E. Finer liken about the President and Congress?
Like "two halves of a bank note, each useless without the other"
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State the check and balance by Congress on POTUS's power to propose legislation.
Power to amend, block or reject legislation.
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State the check and balance by Congress on POTUS's power to submit the annual budget.
Power of the purse.
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State the check and balance by Congress on POTUS's power of pardon.
Congress may impeach anyone in the Executive.
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State the check and balance by Congress on POTUS's power to veto legislation.
Overturn the President's veto.
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State the check and balance by Congress on POTUS's power as acting as Chief Executive.
Congress can investigate any member of the Executive.
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State the check and balance by Congress on POTUS's power to nominate all federal judges.
Senate can confirm any appointments.
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State the check and balance by Congress on POTUS's power to act as Commander-in-Chief.
Congress can declare war.
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State the check and balance by Congress on POTUS's power to negotiate treaties.
Congress can ratify treaties negotiated by POTUS.
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State the check and balance by Congress on POTUS's power to sign legislation.
Congress can ratify treaties negotiated by POTUS.
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Give an example of Congress overriding President Obama's veto.
Congress overode President Obama's veto of the 9/11 lawsuits bill.
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What was the purpose of the 9/11 lawsuits bill (2016)?
Allows victims' families of 9/11 to sue any member of the Saudi Arabian government suspected of being involved in the attacks. Obama tried to prevent the bill but he failed.
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What does EXOP stand for?
The Executive Office of the President
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The top staff in the White House that give the President help and advice in carrying out the major duties of his office. Its primary functions are co-ordination, advice giving and personal management.
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How many offices did EXOP consist of by 2009?
15 offices by 2009
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What are the 3 most important offices in EXOP?
The White House Office, the National Security Council (NSC) and the Office of Management and Budget.
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What was the number of staff in EXOP in 2009?
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Where do the most important EXOP personnel work?
In the West Wing of the White House where the Oval Office is located.
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Who are some of the most important EXOP personnel?
E.g. key presidential advisors.
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Who currently heads the White House Office and when where they appointed?
Reince Priebus (2017)
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Who currently heads the National Security Council and when where they appointed?
Chaired by President Donald J. Trump since 2017.
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Who currently heads the Office of Management and Budget (OMB)?
Mick Mulvaney (2017)
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What are the White House Office's useful functions to POTUS?
Liaison between POTUS and the Federal Bureaucracy, liaison between POTUS and Congress, efficiency of paperwork and administration, 'Honest Broker', 'Lightening Conductors', 'Javelin Catcher', dealing with other personnel, good Chiefs of Staff, etc.
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What are the White House Office's not useful functions to POTUS?
Chief of Staff can start to pursue their own agenda, 'Deputy President' role, Chief of Staff ineffective, in the 'spokes of the wheel system' too many people have access to the Oval Office and in the 'pyramid' system only the select few have access.
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What are the NSC's useful functions to POTUS?
Facilitators and the glue that holds foreign policy departments together and 'Honest Brokers'.
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What are the NSC's not useful functions to POTUS?
NSA cuts out State Department and makes policy (Nixon's Reforms) and hero worshipping of the President by the NSA.
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What are the OMB's useful functions to POTUS?
Directors of OMB excellent advisors on budgetary matters.
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What are the OMB's not useful functions to POTUS?
Less competent directors who cause problems and embarrassment.
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What does the term 'Lightening Conductors' mean?
Someone who deals with crises.
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What does the term 'Javelin catcher' mean?
Serves POTUS's best interest rather than there own.
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What does the term 'Honest Broker' mean?
Ensures all available options are available to POTUS.
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Who does a cabinet member or director of an agency need to go through if they want to talk to the President regarding the White House Office being the liaison between President and the Federal Bureaucracy?
They need to go through the Chief of Staff.
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What specific office of the White House Office deals with those who want to liaise with POTUS?
The Office of Legislative Affairs. The Head of Congressional Liaison will arrange for a member of congress to see POTUS.
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Who was President Nixon's 'tough person'?
Nixon's Chief of Staff Bod Haldeman who once said "Every President needs a son-of-a-*****, and I'm Nixon's!"
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Who was Gerald Ford's Chief of Staff from 1975-77?
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Why might EXOP have more influence than the Cabinet due to its geographical position?
The National Security Advisor's office is a 30 second walk from the Oval Office, the Secretary of Defense is in the Pentagon only 20 minutes away and the Secretary of State's office is located on the 7th floor of the State Department building in D.C.
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Why might EXOP be more loyal to the President than Cabinet?
Cabinet possibly has too many allegiances too Congress and they have their own departments.
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Why might Cabinet be more important than EXOP to POTUS?
EXOP migh manipulate POTUS to do whay they want and EXOP is POTUS's 'lapdog'.
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How can POTUS control the rivalries between EXOP and Cabinet?
POTUS must explain to them what their positions are, staff must be staff and not rise above their station, Cabinet must do what POTUS wants and not get caught in an iron triangle and POTUS must get both sides together to work together regularly.
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How does POTUS recruit their Cabinet?
A new Cabinet is needed by a new POTUS, POTUS needs to look for potential members and Senate confirms President's appointed nominees.
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What are there not in the US but there are in the UK regarding the Cabinet?
There are no shadow cabinets in the US.
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What must the President do if their appointed nominees are from another branch of government?
Persuade them to give up their jobs due to the separation of powers/personnel.
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What does Cabinet needs to be regarding demographics?
Cabinet needs to be representative of the US population (age, race, religion, gender etc).
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What must the President ensure to make the selection process efficient?
POTUS needs to ensure choices will be confirmed by the Senate.
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When was the last time that the Senate rejected POTUS's nominee?
In 1989 when H.W. Bush's nomination of John Trower was nominated as Secretary of Defense.
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Where does the President not tend to look for nominees?
In Congress because they need to give up their jobs in the legislature. In the 40 years from JFK to W. Bush only 1 in 5 Cabinet members have had any congressional experience.
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Where does POTUS look for nominees from individual states?
Serving or former serving Governors as it is an effective promotion.
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Where else does POTUS look for nominees regarding cities?
Serving or former serving Mayors as it is an effective promotion.
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Where else does POTUS look for nominees generally?
Academia as they will be intelligent and will specialise in a certain area.
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What specialists might POTUS look for as nominees?
Policy specialists who have policy expertise.
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By how much votes was Senator Hillary Clinton confirmed by the Senate as President Obama's nominee for his Cabinet?
94-2 (4 didn't vote)
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How many of Obama's Cabinet nominees were confirmed by the Senate?
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What 3 things does a successful confirmation depend on?
Divided/undivided government, partisanship/bipartisanship and the beliefs of candidates.
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How representative was President Obama's second Cabinet in his second term?
Somewhat representative of ethnic minorities but mostly white and mostly male.
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What is some evidence to show some balance in Obama's Cabinet?
Appointment of Charlotte Mayor Anthony Foxx to be his next transportation secretary.
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What is some evidence to show an imbalance in Obama's Cabinet?
Obama hasn't supposedely been representative of the Hispanic populous.
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What 4 things does POTUS need to consider when balancing their Cabinet?
Race, gender, ideological balance and age.
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What President appointed an all-white Cabinet?
Nixon in 1969
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What President appointed an all-male Cabinet?
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What President appointed the first woman to the Cabinet; Carla Hills as Housing and Urban Development Secretary in 1975?
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How did Obama balance his Cabinet ideologically?
In 2009 Obama appointed 2 Republicans to his Cabinet to maintain a balance of opinion: Robert Gates the Defense Secretary and Ray La Hood the Transportation Secretary.
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What is an interesting correlation about POTUS's age and that of his Cabinet?
Cabinet members' ages are normally similar to POTUS. E.g. JFK became President at 43 and died at 46 and the average age of his Cabinet members was 46.
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What percentage of Americans see gun control as an important issue in American politics?
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When did President Trump sign 2 executive orders for 2 pipelines to be constructed; Keystone XL and Dakota Access.
On his second full working day in office.
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Why were some Republicans opposed to the Affordable Care Act?
They thought it would crippple companies with over 50 employees who would have to pay for their health insurance.
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In what ways did the Republicans try to stop the Afforable Care Act?
After it was passed into legislation, they went to the Supreme Court to try and get it declared unconstitutional.
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What form does proposed legislation take?
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What form does legislation that has been passed by Congress and signed by POTUS take?
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What is the role of the executive overall?
Implement and propose law
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What is meant by the term 'unitary executive'?
The Cabinet is not mentioned in the Constitution as they had already invested power in a unitary executive of the President only.
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What is a summary for the term 'imperial presidency'?
Presidents are less accountable, more secretive and potentially illegal.
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Define the US Cabinet.
The advisory group selected by the President to aid him in making decisions and co-ordinating the work of the federal government. The membership of the cabinet is determined by both tradition and presidential discretion.
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How many members of the Cabinet are there?
15 Executive Departments = 15 members
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Give 3 functions of the Federal Bureaucracy overall.
Adjudication, creating specific rules and executing laws.
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The bureaucracy has to adjudicate and sort out these disputes over how harshly or fairly rules are enforced.
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Discuss creating specific rules.
Congress pass the bills, but they only establish the broad principles of policy. The bureaucracy writes specific rules that decide how the laws are going to be executed.
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Discuss executing laws.
Congress passes bills' and the President signs them into law. It is then the federal bureaucracy's job to see that they are carried out and executed.
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How many times did President Obama use his regular veto and how many times were they overturned by Congress?
12 times, overturned once.
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How representative is President Trump's Cabinet?
Men and women, all white and all above 48.
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Who was the first US President to visit China?
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State 2 Presidents who have recieved a Nobel Peace Prize.
Jimmy Carter and Barack Obama
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Other cards in this set
Who is at the top of the structure of the Federal Bureaucracy?
Who is second from the top of the Federal Bureaucracy?
What is the overall structure of the Federal Bureaucracy (from top to bottom)?
How many tiers are in the hierachy Executive Departments?