The Russian Civil War

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What caused the Russian Civil war? (5)
Nationalities wanted independence, Political Opposition, Allied Opposition angry about withdrawal from war, Growing lawlessness in cities worried citizens, Food requisitioning and famine after the loss of Ukraine
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Who were the reds? What did they want?
Bolsheviks, workers, soldiers - wanted to stay in power
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Who were the whites? What did they want?
Liberals, fromer Tsarists, SRs (all anti-bolshevik - otherwise deeply divided)
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Who were the greens? What did they want?
Peasant armies/ nationalities fighting for or against Bolsheviks. Wanted to protect their land or gain independence
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Who were the Czech legion?
Escaped Czech prisoners of war. Fought for the whites with allied support. Took control of large parts of the T-S Railway and western Siberia
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Why was war communism needed?
Critical food shortages which Lenin blamed on the kulaks hoarding of grain
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What was war communism?
Cheka and Red army requisitioned grain. Terrorised country, targeting Kulaks
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What was the effect of War Communism?
Peasants became demotivated and harvest fell dramatically. Combined with requisitioning and bad harvests --> famine. 5 million deaths
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What were the motives and actions of britain during the civil war?
Churchill sent £100 million worth supplies to the whites because he feared the bolshevik spread
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What were the motives of french intervention during the civil war?
Bolsheviks had nationalised foreign business without compensating investors
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What were the motives of Japanese intervention during the civil war?
wanted to annex land (eg: Vladivostok)
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What were the motives and actions of the USA during the civil war?
sent troops to areas with japanese forces to prevent them from annexing occupied land
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Why did foreign intervention have little impact on the outcome of the war? (4)
They were unenthusiastic and ineffective. Troops were war-weary. Lack of support from public at home. Allied soldiers played no role in military action, only supply distribution.
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What was the role of Trotsky during the civil war? (6)
Restored army discipline, attached political commissar to each unit to feedback info and ensure loyalty, specially equipped armoured train, inspired men to follow him, aggitational role, figurehead.
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How did the red army's unity and organisation aid their victory? (4)
Trotsky ensured their unity under a single command structure, enlisted 40,000 ex-tsarist officers to train and lead the army, appointed political commissars, red army outstripped opponents in terms of numbers, efficiency and morale.
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How did support and terror aid red victory? (4)
Right to own land grew support, Red terror more effective than white (used cheka). Effective propaganda against whites (whites supported by foreigners, so could take land away), reds offered hope of new society
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How did Red leadership aid their victory? (3)
Trotsky took special forces to fiercest areas of fighting - could inspire and rally men, used discipline (retreat would mean certain death). Lenin agreed that tsarist officers could join and train red army
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How did geography aid red victory?(3)
Reds controlled densely populated areas, rail network and main industrial areas. Moved capital to moscow - hub of railway network and armament factories
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How did White divisions aid bolshevik victory? (3)
distrusted each other & argued internally over aims. Foreign assistance ineffective (and their presence may have increased red support)
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How did white unpopularity aid red victory? (3)
Whites made it clear that land would be returned to landlords. Russian population mostly peasantry - most did not like the reds but hated the whites more. Lost nationality support as they wanted to restore empire to pre 1917 borders.
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How did white leadership aid bolshevik victory? (3)
No single leader of stature of Trotsky or Lenin. Many leaders were cruel, leading to desertion. High level of indiscipline and corruption (eg: orders disobeyed and some officers lived in brothels and drank heavily.
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How did white geography aid bolshevik victory?(3)
Geographically scattered, found it hard to coordinate attacks. Had no telephone links & had to used officers on horseback to convey messages
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What were the results of the Russian Civil War?
1920 - industrial production about 1/4 of 1913 levels - no of employed workers fell by 1/2. War kept bolsheviks in power, Soviets pushed aside and comm party emerged dominant. Failure for nationalists (right of self determination only in theory)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Who were the reds? What did they want?

Back

Bolsheviks, workers, soldiers - wanted to stay in power

Card 3

Front

Who were the whites? What did they want?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Who were the greens? What did they want?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Who were the Czech legion?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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