The New Deal

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1887 - Dawes Act
Removed legal rights of American Indian tribes
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Unemployment level in 1930
4 million
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Unemployment level in 1931
7 million
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November 1932
Roosevelt wins election with a landslide victory
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March - June 1932
The 100 days - Roosevelt could implement whatever he wanted without congress intervention
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Unemployment level in 1933
Somewhere between 12-15 million
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How did Roosevelt attempt to stabilise the banks the day after his inauguration in March 1933
Declared a four-day bank holiday, using the powers of the 1917 Trading with the enemy Act
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March 1933 - Emergency Banking Act
Used Hoover's Reconstruction Finance Corporation to buy stock and buy up bank debts. Also banned the export of gold and suspended dollar convertibility to gold. 70% of banks reopened- By the End of April 1 billion dollars of bank deposits
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March 1933
Economy Act
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March 1933 - Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
Military style work camps for men ages 17-24 in national forests and parks (road building, soil conservation, cutting breaks). Paid $30 a month, with £25 sent home. Gave experience, discipline, teamwork skills and a sense of purpose.
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April 1933
US leaves the Gold Standard
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May 1933 - Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA)
£500 million budget to help the unemployed. Half the fund was spend directly and the other half was spent on the basis of one dollar for every three spent by a particular state. Largely helped the construction industry.
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May 1933 - Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
According to the administration the main issue was overproduction - subsidised farmers to cut production to raise prices and increase income. Some farmers owning their own land were paid to take certain crops out of production.
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How many acres of cotton farmland were ploughed under as a result of the AAA?
10 million acres by 1 million farmers
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How many pig were slaughtered as a result of the AAA?
6 million slaughtered
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How many acres of tobacco were ploughed under as a result of the AAA?
12,000 acres
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Commodity Credit Agency (part of the AAA)
Made loans to farmers to store their products - only to be repaid when a certain price for the crop was reached. Targets= corn, cotton, pigs, tobacco and wheat. Financed by tax on food processing
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Southern Tenant Farmers Union (STFU)
Radical protesters against the AAA, who were ignored by Roosevelt
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what short term measure was introduced in 1933 to pacify farmers by encouraging exports and raising commodity prices
The devaluation of the Dollar
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May 1933- Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
helped many farming communities across the south-east of the USA by improving flood controls and providing cheap electricity. 20 dams to improve flood control, irrigation and electricity. Fertilizer produces in the region would transform agriculture
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1933 - Home Owners Refinancing corporation
Lower rates of interest over an extended borrowing period (housing)
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June 1933 - Glass Steagall Banking Act
High street banks no longer allowed to be involved in investment- designed to remove conflicts of interest created when commercial banks were allowed to underwrite stock
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Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
Provided a system of Federal Guarantees of bank deposits
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June 1933 - Farm Credit Act
Began to tackle the issue of rock bottom prices and crushing indebtedness for farmers by making loan funds available
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June 1933 - National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)
Centrepiece of the Administration's efforts to create jobs. Umbrella organisation that established two further organisations - the NRA and the PWA
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June 1933 - Public Works Administration (PWA)
Provide funding for public works schemes - road building, dam construction, school and hospital construction. $3.3 billion funding
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June 1933 - National Recovery Administration (NRA)
Desired to restore purchasing power and avoid excessive cut-throat competition. 541 codes to regulate the workplace (Regulate prices, working conditions, minimum wages). Section 7a -collective bargaining which assisted trade union power
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November 1933 - Civil Works Administration
Set up to create jobs for the winter period. The fact that not enough had been done would be exposed by the suffering that harsh winter conditions would bring. Jobs nicknamed "boondoggles" - had no real purpose.
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January 1934 - Farm Mortgaging Refinancing Act (FMRA)
Helped farmers by rescheduling debts and avoiding foreclosures on indebted farms
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1934 - The Federal Housing Administration
Offered government backed insurance on long-term mortgages. Helped many families and gave a boost to the construction industry
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February 1934
Crop Loan Act
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April 1934
Jones-Connally Farm Relief Act
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June 1934
Federal Farm Bankruptcy Act
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August 1934 - Securities Exchange Commission (SEC)
Regulate the stock market by providing the framework and control to tackle speculation by outlawing insider dealing and purchasing shares "on the margin"
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1934 - Indian Reorganization Act
Halted further sales of tribal lands, but put the breaks on the grand schemes for cultural revival
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1935 - 38
The Second New Deal
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April 1935 - Soil Erosion Act
The first Act that focused on combating soil erosion and heightening conservation awareness - Farmers were paid to plant soil conserving grasses and legumes, thereby reducing the acreage of crops whose output was seen as too great
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April 1935 - The Emergency Relief Appropriation Act.
Added a new body, the WPA. Also set up the Resettlement Agency, which aimed to create garden cities and a different life for the poor (only three were ever established)
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May 1935 - Works Progress Administration (WPA)
Partly spent directly on federal project and part through state grants.$4 billion budget. Responsible for 2,500 hospitals, 6,000 schools and 570,000 miles of roads. within six months it employed over 2 million. Established agencies for the Arts.
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May 1935 - Rural Electrification Act
Aimed to provide electricity throughout the whole country. The Rural Electrification Agency offered low interest loans to rural cooperatives, helped development of local democracy and brought electricity to areas where big companies had no interest
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1935 - National Youth Administration
Jobs and Training for 16-25 yr olds
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July 1935 - National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act)
To guarantee rights of collective bargaining and outlaw anti-union practices. Could force a person to join a union against their will. in 1938 almost 9 million union members, compared to just under 2 million in 1933
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National Labor Board
Part of the Wagner Act. It supervised free elections on union representation and guaranteed the right to collective bargaining.
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1935 - Revenue Act
Aimed at a fairer distribution of the tax burden
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1935 - Social Security Act
The beggining of a partial welfare state. A programme involving both federal and some State Government to provide pensions and unemployment benfits
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1935 - Wealth Tax Bill
Increase in corporate tax rate, taxation of large inheritances as well as a new excess profits tax
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1935 - Public Utility Holding Company Act
Aimed to restrict power of great holding companies
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February 1936 - Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act
Follow up Act to combat soil erosion and heighten awareness of conservation
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November 1936
Roosevelt re-elected in second landslide victory
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April 1937 - Wagner-Steagall Act
Established the US Housing Authority
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1937 - Guffey-Snyder Act
Brought fairer labour standards to the coal industry
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February 1938 - Second Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
A replacement for the previous agricultural subsidy policies that had been declared unconstitutional
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June 1938- Fair Labor Standards Act
Introduced a Minimum Wage, prohibited child labour and established a 40 hour week
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November 1938 - Federal National Mortgage Association (Fannie Mae)
Ease trade in mortgages across the country, and make possible shifts in capital from one area to another that the small and local savings and loans societies couldn't do
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September 1939
War breaks out in Europe - Huge stimulation to US economy from heavy demand from Great Britain and France
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US begins rearmament
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Anti-Lynching bills 1934 and 37
No backing from the resident and floundered in Congress
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4 million


Unemployment level in 1930

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7 million


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Roosevelt wins election with a landslide victory


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The 100 days - Roosevelt could implement whatever he wanted without congress intervention


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