Carl Degler (the late 1950s)
- Was the "third America Revolution"
- The enhanced role of the federal government saw it take increasing responsibility.
- The new deal Represented a sign of a growing maturity of the America nation.
- it also had a break with Laissez- Faire policies of the 19th century and the 1920s
Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr. & William Leuchtenburg
- The new deal represented a compassionate response to crisis.
Leuchtenburg: The New Deal created a more just society by recognising previously marginalised groups like organised labour.
- The probelms of America were only paritally addressed.
- · Groups such as slum dwellers, share-croppers (the poorest farmers who rented their land from larger landowners) & African Americans still felt a sense of exclusion.
The ‘New Left’ (1960’s): Paul Conkin, Barton J. B
- It was a wasted opportunity for a radical change.
- Piecemeal solutions enabled capitalism to prevail
- . · Conkin: The New Deal should have improved social justice & produced a more contented population.
· Bernstein: The New Deal failed to solve the depression & did not redistribute wealth or improve the lot of America’s poor.
· The New Deal never consulted the people about what they wanted or needed.
Milton Friedman (1970s/80s)
- it Set USA upon the wrong course encouraging government spending and welfare state
- It encouraged people to rely on the federal government which stoped entrepreneurial creativity.
· The election of Ronald Regan in 1980 was a turning point in reversing the New Deal’s policy of government responsibility for the people.
William Leuchtenburg (writing since the ‘New Left’
· The New Deal achieved a lot in the field of expanding federal government power.
· The expansion of federal power has largely remained permanent.
David Kennedy (1990s)
- it did not manage to achieve fundamental changes to the America economy such as redidusrting national wealth or ending capitalism.
- it did achieve a great deal in other way , reforming the economy so that more could benefit from the wealth.
· The achievements of the New Deal included the following
- Recognition of organised labour (trade union recognition).
- Better regulation of abuses in the economic system.
- Greater financial security (e.g. the introduction of old age pensions).