Teleological Argument (For and Against)

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Swinburne
Factors in the universe that prove it has been designed; order (regularity of co-presence) and the simple and orderly pattern it follows (regularity of succession). It is more probable that the universe was created by God than chance.
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Paley
(Natural Theology) Watch analogy - it has purpose and an order that serves that purpose, therefore it must have a designer. The complex order of the universe that serves its purpose shows it too must have a designer (God).
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Aquinas' Fifth Argument to Prove God
(Summa Theologica) Archer analogy - like an arrow unconscious objects in the universe have purpose, which is not possible without a guiding intelligence (God/Archer), which helps the object reach this purpose (hit the target).
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Hume
(Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion) Machine analogy - The world is like a machine, it has many intricate parts that all work together to serve a purpose. Like the machine the world must have a creator, but a much greater one (it is more complex).
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Tennant (Anthropic Principle)
Combines science and religion to prove God exists, e.g. evolution. Weak (we exist = there must be the conditions for us to exist), strong (it is necessary for the universe to be like this) , participatory (we must observe for the universe to exist).
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Tennant (Aesthetic Principle)
Beauty is not necessary for life to exist, so it can't have arisen through the
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What type of theory is this?
A posteriori - uses evidence from the world around us). Teleological - gathers evidence from the end product of creation.
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A.J. Ayer (The verification principle)
If a statement can't be proven by experience or solid evidence then it isn't meaningful. The argument can't be proven, therefore it has no meaning.
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J.S. Mill
It doesn't prove a christian God due to the problem of evil. If there is a creator they must be faulted or cruel to create such a world.
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Immanuel Kant
Order is perceived but since we have limited perceptions we could be mistaking chaos for order.
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Hume
There could be many causes for the order we see, or none at all. There are no accurate analogies since the universe is unique. Fallacy of composition.
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Richard Dawkins
DNA mutation is the blind watchmaker of life, there is no need for a creator. We're just "bytes of digital information". Evolution isn't sentient and doesn't need to be.
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Charles Darwin
The theory of evolution proves that there is no need for a designer to create successful life forms, they can arise through the random chance of natural selection and genetic mutation (DNA was not a part of his theory, it was discovered later)
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Michael Palmer (Infinite universe)
Monkey with a type writer analogy. Infinite number of universes created over infinite time = eventually make this one, so it could be from chance.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

(Natural Theology) Watch analogy - it has purpose and an order that serves that purpose, therefore it must have a designer. The complex order of the universe that serves its purpose shows it too must have a designer (God).

Back

Paley

Card 3

Front

(Summa Theologica) Archer analogy - like an arrow unconscious objects in the universe have purpose, which is not possible without a guiding intelligence (God/Archer), which helps the object reach this purpose (hit the target).

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

(Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion) Machine analogy - The world is like a machine, it has many intricate parts that all work together to serve a purpose. Like the machine the world must have a creator, but a much greater one (it is more complex).

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Combines science and religion to prove God exists, e.g. evolution. Weak (we exist = there must be the conditions for us to exist), strong (it is necessary for the universe to be like this) , participatory (we must observe for the universe to exist).

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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