RELIGIOUS STUDIES REVISION:
THE DESIGN ARGUMENT/TELEOLOGICAL ARGUMENT:
• The Design Argument is also known as the Teleological argument
• Telos means: goal or purpose
• It is a posteriori argument, where it is based on the observation of the apparent order in the universe and the natural world, which supports that we are not just here by chance but out of design.
• It starts with finding meaning and purpose in parts of the world. Then the argument looks at the idea of purpose and order within the universe to argue for the existence of God
• 1st form of the argument is an Analogical argument - which depends on the drawing of an analogy between the world or its parts and objects of human design (which basically means: It is an argument in which one concludes that two things are alike in a certain respect because they are alike in other respects)
• 2nd form of the argument is the Inductive argument - based on the observation that the universe demonstrates regular motion both in its parts and in the whole (which basically means: allows for the possibility that the conclusion is false, even if all of the premises are true. Instead of being valid or invalid, inductive arguments are either strong or weak, which describes how probable it is that the conclusion is true)
• The five key features of the design argument are order, benefit, purpose, suitability for human life and appearance.
• Made into a theistic argument - One that seeks to prove the existence of the god of classical theism
• The design argument suggests that certain aspects of the universe are so perfectly adapted to the fulfil their function that they display evidence of being deliberately designed and that such design can only be explained with reference to an intelligent, personal designer. Since the works of nature are far greater than the works of humanity, it must be an infinitely greater designer, God - the probability of its coming about by chance is far too remote to be even a partial, let alone a complete, explanation
• David Hunts parable of the shipwreck:
• Two men are shipwrecked on a desert island. They find a factory that is operating and producing goods, but there is no one operating it. One man thinks that this means that the island is inhabited, but the other thinks it is a coincidence. They then find a watch, that one man thinks means the island is inhabited, but the other thinks it came to be there by chance. This links to the Teleological argument because the watch and the factory cannot be by chance, they have not randomly come into being on their own, and they have had a cause or designer. This is the concept of the Teleological argument.
• The five key features of the design argument: