Systems II

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  • Created by: LBCW0502
  • Created on: 05-04-18 14:00
How are blood and lymph pumped from the lower extremities back to the heart?
Through blood vessels
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What is the muscular movements which transit food through the digestive system called?
Peristalsis
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What would be the consequence of not having sinuses?
Could lead to infection
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Describe features of the cardiovascular system
Heart acts as a pump, blood (fluid contains food, minerals, gases, waste products, protective/regulating compounds), blood vessels (system of closed tubes)
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Describe features of the heart
Right atrium (deoxygenated blood from the body), right ventricle (deoxygenated blood to the lungs), left atrium (oxygenated blood from lungs), left ventricle (oxygenated blood to the body)
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State features of the heart histology
Pericardium (heart sac), serous (membrane), myocardium (muscle layer), endocardium (inner lining)
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What are the three main types of blood vessels?
Arteries (from heart to tissues of the body), capillaries (interchange of gases, food and waste), veins (from tissues of the body back to the heart)
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Describe blood vessel histology
Artery (large lumen, lots of muscle and elastic - extra pump as contraction, high pressure), veins (lower blood pressure, larger lumen, less elastic, contains valves), capillary (one cell thick, small lumen, endothelium)
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Which blood vessel is the most elastic and why?
Aorta - able to withstand high pressure of blood coming from the heart contracting (oxygenated blood sent around the body, largest artery)
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Which blood vessels contain valves?
Veins - two flaps (cuspids) meet, blood returning to heart push cuspids open, back flow prevented by closing of flaps
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What is the function of the carotid artery?
To supply oxygenated blood to the brain
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What does the pulmonary artery contain?
Deoxygenated blood (from heart to lungs)
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What does the pulmonary vein contain?
Oxygenated blood (from lungs to heart)
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What does the superior vena cava contain?
Deoxygenated blood from the head and upper body
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What does the inferior vena cava contain?
Deoxygenated blood from the lower body
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Describe the composition of blood
8% of body is blood (other fluid 92%). 55% plasma and 45% formed elements. In plasma 91% is water (also contains proteins, ions, waste products, hormones). In formed elements, majority includes erythrocytes (and white blood cells e.g. lymphocytes)
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How do the muscles contribute to more efficient blood flow?
The muscles contract which squeezes blood vessels such as veins, which leads to more efficient blood flow
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What are the main components in the lymphatic system?
Spleen, thymus, bone marrow and lymph nodes - drains excess tissue fluid and provides immunity (premature cells move in lymphatic system)
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Describe features of the lymph vessel
One way flow, overlapping epithelia allow for easy entry of interstitial fluid, valves prevent back flow of lymph, enters circulatory system via left or right subclavian vein (dependent upon duct)
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What does the right subclavian vein correspond to?
The majority of the body (lymph enters circulatory system)
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What does the left subclavian vein correspond to?
Head and left arm (lymph enters circulatory system)
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Describe features of the lymph node?
1- 25 mm long, filters lymph, lymph flows via afferent vessels (narrow, into sinuses/phagocytosis, germinal centres are sites of lymphocyte production), lymph flows out via efferent vessels (wide)
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What are T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes produced?
T (thymus) and B (bone marrow)
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What is the general name of the type of cancer which affects the lymphatic system?
Lymphoma
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Describe features of the spleen
Located under stomach, size of a clenched fist, detects foreign substances in the blood, removes old erythrocytes, acts as reservoir of blood (e.g. when there is a loss of blood from a wound, blood is released into the circulatory system quickly)
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Describe features of the thymus
Bilobe structure, very large in children (decreases in size in adults), production of lymphocytes which move to other lymphatic tissues, no active in thymus because blood-thymus barrier prevents entry of foreign substances
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State the components of the respiratory system
Nasal passage, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, heart ribs, diaphragm, intercostal muscles
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What are the functions of the nasal cavity?
Filters, warms and moistens incoming air (lots of blood vessels present), passageways to pharynx
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What are the functions of the paranasal sinuses?
Produces mucus, acts as resonators for sound and lightens the skull
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What are the functions of the larynx?
Voice box, passageway for air, production of sound, protects trachea from foreign objects
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What are the functions of the trachea?
Windpipe, passageway for air to and from thoracic cavity, traps and expels foreign matter
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What are the functions of the diaphragm?
Enlarges thoracic cavity to allow for inspiration, returns to original position for expiration
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What is the conduction region?
Air is conducted into the lungs (upper airways and lower airways)
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Describe features of upper airways (central, proximal)
Trachea and large/small bronchi, first 12 generations of branches, supported by rigid cartilage rings, outer diameter controlled by S.M, inner diameter affected by inflammation of mucosal lining
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Describe features of lower airways (distal, peripheral)
Bronchioles, 13-24th generations of branches, outer diameter controlled by adjacent lung parenchyma, inner diameter affected by inflammation of mucosal lining
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What are the functions of bronchi and bronchioles?
Passageway for air to and from alveoli, can expand and contract to regulate air intake
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What is the function of alveoli?
Site of gas exchange
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What is emphysema?
Removal of alveoli
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State features of bronchial mucosa
Ciliated columnar epithelial cells, cilia on apical surface, basal cell layer, basement membrane, goblet cell (rare), submucosa (connective tissue)
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Lung mucus secretions have which two component layers?
Hypophase (lower soluble layer of serous (watery) secretion) - cilia propel mucus hypophase in upward direction. Epiphase (upper gel layer of mucus (viscous) secretion) - traps and immobilises dust and bacterial particles
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What is the acinus?
Terminal and respiratory bronchioles - particle removal, airflow regulation (smooth muscle), limited gas-exchange
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What is alveoli?
Alveolar ducts and sacs - extensive gas exchange, 0.2-0.4 uM wall thickness, efficient gaseous diffusion
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What are the pulmonary blood vessels?
Arterioles and capillaries
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Which components in the lymphatic system are part of the gas-exchange region?
Lymphatic ducts (drainage) and pulmonary lymph nodes
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Describe the process of inspiration
External intercostal muscles contract, diaphragm contracts, volume of thorax increases, pressure in thorax decreases, air drawn into lungs
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Describe the process of expiration
External intercostal muscles relax, diaphragm releases, volume of thorax decreases, pressure in thorax increases, air forced out of lungs
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Describe the process of forced expiration
Internal intercostals contract, forcing air out
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Describe features of the digestive system
During transit through digestive system food is subjected to mechanical and chemical change, regulated by neural and hormonal signals
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Describe the process of digestion
Ingestion (mouth/pharynx/oesophagus), secretion/digestion (mouth/pharynx/stomach/SI) enzymes/large molecules, absorption (stomach/SI/LI) small soluble molecules/water, assimilation (small molecules, cells), excretion (rectum/reject/remove waste)
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What do the salivary glands secrete?
Secretes amylase for digestion of carbohydrates into maltose and dextrin
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Describe features of the stomach
Gastric juice includes HCl, pepsinogen, lipase, mucus, intrinsic factor. Break down of proteins/carbohydrates/fats, very little absorption
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Describe features of the SI
Pancreatic juice, trypsin, pancreatic amylase, bile mucus, digestion of proteins/carbohydrates/fats, bile emulsifies fats, amino acids/sugars absorbed by active transport, fats absorbed by villi
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Describe features of associated organs
Liver (largest internal organ, synthesis of bile, storage of nutrients), bile duct (storage of bile, emulsification of fats, excretion of metabolites), pancreas (regulate blood sugar using insulin/glucagon)
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Describe features of LI?
Absorption of water and salts, formation/storage of faeces, slow transit time, large bacterial population
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What is a faecal implant?
Treatment for GI issues, inject faeces into intestine (to restore colonic microflora)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the muscular movements which transit food through the digestive system called?

Back

Peristalsis

Card 3

Front

What would be the consequence of not having sinuses?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Describe features of the cardiovascular system

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Describe features of the heart

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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