Studying Society

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Sociological Approach
A way of understanding human society that focuses on social structures
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Psychological Approach
A way of understanding human behaviour by looking at individual make-up (brain, thinking patterns, personality etc.)
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Biological Approach
A way of understanding humans by looking at their biological make-up (genes, chromosomes, hormones etc.)
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Power
Where a person or group is able to direct the behaviour of another person or group. This can be through direct exercise of power (force, dominance, authority) or indirectly (coercion, persuasion, expertise).
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Social Control
Ways of ensuring people behave in socially acceptable ways, such as socialisation, laws, exercise of power etc.
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Social Structure
Structures organised around people, such as the family, schools, government, religion etc.
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Culture
Where a group of people share common norms, values and beliefs.
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Subculture
A smaller group of people who share norms, values and beliefs that are different from the main culture.
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Socialisation
The process of learning norms, values and beliefs. This can be primary or secondary.
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Institution of Socialisation
The different social structures that are involved in socialising members of society, such as the family, education system, mass media, religion etc.
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Race
A term that suggests differences in culture, nationality, skin colour etc. are biological.
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Ethnicity
A term that refers to differences in culture but is not based on biology – this is about social differences.
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Sex
A term referring the biological categories of male and female, as defined by genes, chromosomes and hormones.
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Gender
A term referring to the social categories of masculine and feminine, which are usually related to the biological categories of male and female due to stereotyping and gender role socialisation.
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Age
The process of aging is biological, but there are sociological points to make about this (for example, children are treated differently to adults, the mass media tend to present negative stereotypes of older people etc.)
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Stereotype
A ‘typical’ image of a person based on social categories such as gender, age, ethnicity, family position, job etc.
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Deviance
Acting in a way that goes against a culture’s norms, values and beliefs.
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Norms
Ways to act and behave that are seen as ‘normal’ within a culture / subculture.
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Values
The things that a culture / subculture believes are important (eg. earning a living, owning a house).
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Beliefs
The things that a culture / subculture believes in (God, the innocence of children etc.).
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A way of understanding human behaviour by looking at individual make-up (brain, thinking patterns, personality etc.)

Back

Psychological Approach

Card 3

Front

A way of understanding humans by looking at their biological make-up (genes, chromosomes, hormones etc.)

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Where a person or group is able to direct the behaviour of another person or group. This can be through direct exercise of power (force, dominance, authority) or indirectly (coercion, persuasion, expertise).

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Ways of ensuring people behave in socially acceptable ways, such as socialisation, laws, exercise of power etc.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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