Structure of the Internet

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What is an internet?
An interconnection between two or more computer networks.
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What is the Internet?
A network of computer networks and computers using unique IP addresses and TCP/IP
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What does TCP/IP stand for?
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol.
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What does a Gateway do?
Connects networks that use different link layer protocols.
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What does a Router do?
Connects networks that use the same link later protocol.
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In its simplest form, a packet consists of three parts. Name them.
Source Address, Destination, Payload (The Data)
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What is an IP address?
A unique address that identifies a computer of other electronic device on a network.
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What is the World Wide Web?
A system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet.
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What is an Intranet?
A private computer network used to share information or operations within an organisation.
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What is a Domain name?
A name that identifies one or more IP addresses.
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What does FQDN stand for and what does it consist of?
Fully Qualified Domain Name. Consists of a host ID and Domain Name.
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What is a DNS (Domain Name System) Server?
A server that translates fully qualified domain names into IP addresses.
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What does URL stand for? What is a URL?
Uniform Resource Locator. A URI that identifies a resource by its network location.
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What does a URI do?
(Uniform Resource Identify) It specifies how to access the resource on the Internet.
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Why are routers used?
Routers are used because it is not practical to connect every host to every other host.
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How does a router work?
A router receives packets from one host or router and uses the destination IP address that they contain to pass the packets, correctly formatted, to another host or router.
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How many bits does an IPv4 address consist of? How many bytes is this?
32 bits. 4 bytes.
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Here is an IP address: 196.100.11.4. Identify the Network ID and the Host ID.
Network ID: 196.100.11. Host ID: 4
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Here is a URL. http://www.microsoft.com/index/index.html. Identify the protocol, host and path.
Protocol: http. Host: www.microsoft.com. Path on Server: index/index.html
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What is a Server?
A software process that provides a service requested by a client.
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What is a Client?
A software process that requests and uses the services provided by a server.
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Describe the Client-Server model.
A client software process initiates a request for a service from a server software process and the server responds to that request.
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What is a protocol?
A set of agreed signals, codes and rules for data exchange between systems.
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What is a protocol stack?
A collection of protocol layers. Each layer is responsible for part of the process governed by the stack.
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Name the 4 layers of the TCP/IP protocol stack.
Application layer, Transport layer, Network layer, Link layer.
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What is a port?
An address for a software process.
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Which protocols are used in the Application layer?
Telnet, FTP, SMTP, POP3, HTTP
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What protocols are used in the Transport and Network layers respectively?
Transport: TCP, Network: IP
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What is a socket?
A combination of a host IP address and a port number.
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What does the Application layer do?
Handles the details of a particular networking application. Uses different protocols for different applications.
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What does the Transport layer do?
Uses TCP to ensure a reliable flow of data and relieves applications from having to deal with the problems of connecting the hosts, detecting when errors occur, retransmitting packets and detecting when a connection is broken.
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What does the Network layer do?
Adds source and destination IP addresses to packets on their way from the transport layer to the link layer and removes these when packets are on their way from the link layer to the transport layer.
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What does the Link layer do?
Handles all the physical details of interfacing the cable, including the network interface card and a device driver.
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Which servers use the following ports: 20, 21, 80, 8080, 25, 110, 23
20: FTP server (file transfer data), 21: FTP server (file transfer control), 80/8080: Web server, 25: SMTP server, 110: POP3 server, 23: Telnet server
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What does HTTP stand for and what does it do?
Hypertext Transfer Protocol. A client machine sends a request to a server and the server responds with a response message.
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What does FTP stand for and what does it do?
File Transfer Protocol. Enables files on one host to be copied to another host.
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What is Telnet used for?
It is used to manage a remote machine, read the HTML text of a web page and send and retrieve e-mail.
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What is SMTP and what is it used for?
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. Used by e-mail clients to send e-mail
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What is POP3 and what is it used for?
Post Office Protocol version 3. It is used to retrieve stored e-mails.
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What is HTTPs and what is it used for?
Hypertext Transfer Protocol over Secure Sockets Layer. It encrypts and decrypts user page requests as well as the pages that are returned by the web server.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the Internet?

Back

A network of computer networks and computers using unique IP addresses and TCP/IP

Card 3

Front

What does TCP/IP stand for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does a Gateway do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does a Router do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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