COMP2 Glossary

Typed up 'key terms' from my textbook, added in a couple of my own for clarity. Good cramming material?

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  • Created on: 03-04-11 19:37
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COMP 2 Glossary
Logic gates and Boolean algebra
Boolean variable: may have two discrete possible values, e.g. True or false
Truth table: a table that shows the result of applying the logical functions to all possible
combinations of inputs.
Boolean equation: an equation that expresses a Boolean output Q in terms of Boolean inputs, X, Y,
Z, etc. To which one or more Boolean functions, such as OR, AND and NOT, are applied.
Logic gate: an electronic circuit that performs a Boolean function.
OR function: the output is true is either or both inputs are true.
AND function: the output is true is all inputs are true.
NOT function: the output is the inverse of the input.
Exclusive OR function (XOR): the output is true if either input is true but not if both inputs are true.
NAND function: the output is true if any input is false.
NOR function: the output is true only when all inputs are false.
De Morgan's Laws: A + B = (A' . B')' and A . B = (A' + B')' (` = NOT)
Computer architecture
Three-box model: models computer system as three boxes; the processor, main memory and I/O,
interconnected by a bus.
Hardware: Electronic/electrical circuits that a computer assembled from. The platform on which the
software executes.
Main memory: memory that is directly addressable by the processor.
Memory location: a separately addressable area of main memory.
RAM: random access memory; volatile main memory in which the locations can be accessed directly
in any order with the same access time for all writing and reading operations.
ROM: read-only memory; non-volatile main memory that cannot be written to once it is set up.
EEPROM: electrically erasable programmable read-only memory; its contents may be altered but
writing is about 100 times slower than reading.
Computer bus: a set of parallel wires connecting independent components of a computer system.

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System bus or external bus: the main highway connecting the processor, main memory and I/O
controllers; it is made up of a data bus, an address bus and a control bus.
Data bus: bidirectional, used to transport data between components of the three-box model.
Address bus: unidirectional, used to address memory and I/O locations.
Control bus: bidirectional, used to transport control signals between components of three-box
I/O: allows the CPU to communicate with peripherals.…read more

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Compiled high-level language program: a program translated into machine code before it is
executed on a digital computer.
Op-code: the part of a machine code instructions that denotes the basic machine operation, e.g.
Operand: the part of a machine code instruction that represents a single item of binary data or the
address of a single item of binary data.
Instruction set: the set of bit patterns or binary codes for the machine operations that a processor
has been designed to perform.…read more

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Application software: allows users to perform non-computer tasks such as writing a letter or
processing orders.
Bespoke software: written for a customer's specific need.
General- purpose software: software that can be used for many different tasks.
Special-purpose software: software designed to support one specific task.
Structure of the internet
Internet: a network of computer networks and computers using unique IP addresses and TCP/IP.
Gateway: connects networks that use different layer protocols.
Router: connects networks that use the same link layer protocol.…read more

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Port: an address for a software process.
Socket: a combination of host IP address and a port number.
Bidirectional: data passes both ways at the same time.
Network layer: adds source and destination IP addresses to packets on their way from the transport
layer to the link layer, and removes source and destination IP addresses from packets on their way
from the link layer to the transport layer.…read more

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Class selector: used to select an HTML element that has a class attribute.
ID selector: identifies a specific HTML element and can only be used once per page.
Consequences of uses of computers
Copyright: protects material, such as literature, art, music, sound recordings, films and broadcasts.
Design right: protects how something looks.
Patent: protects how an invention works or what it does.
Trademark: protects the name or logo used to identify a business or product.
Cracking: illegally breaking into a computer system.…read more


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