Stem Cells

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What do early embyo cells show?
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What is totipotency?
They can make any cell type
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What do older embryos show?
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What does pluripotent mean?
can make most cell types
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What are differentiated cells?
Some are multipotent stem cells(in bone marrow)
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What are three sources of stem cells?
Embryonic stem cells, adult stem cells and fused cells
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What is the advantage of embryonic stem cells?
Easy to extract and grow
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What are four disadvantages of embryonic stem cells?
ethical issues, possible rejection by patients body, risk of infection when cells are received, risk of stem cells becomming cancerous in the body
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What are the advantages of adult stem cells?
Fewer ethical issues, rejection risk avoided if stem cells taken from patient
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What are three disadvantages of adult stem cells?
difficult to extract, more difficult to produce different cell types and risk of infection when cells extracted and recieved
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What are the advantages of fused cells?
rejection risk avoided if nucleus taken from patient, potential for treating genetic disorders
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what are three disadvantages of fused cells?
ethical issues with source of embryonic nuclei, risk of infection when cells received and risk of stem cells becoming cancerous in body
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What four diseases can stem cells be used for?
Parkinson's disease, Multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes and burns
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What is Parkinson's disease?
loss of nerve cells in the brain that are involved in muscle control
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What is MS?
the electrical insulating layer surrounding nerve cells break down
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What is the first stage in cells becoming specialised?
The correct stimulus is given to the unspecialised cells, eg chemical stimulus
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What happens when these chemicals are given to cells?
some genes are switched on and become active; other genes are switched off
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What is made from active genes
Messenger RNA
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What does the mRNA do?
Moves to the ribosomes; the ribosomes read the mRNA and the appropriate protein is made
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What can the protein do?
permantly alter the structure and function of the cells
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What are two similarites between totipotent and pluripotent stem cells?
both are undifferentiated and can give rise to cells that become more specialised
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Card 2


What is totipotency?


They can make any cell type

Card 3


What do older embryos show?


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Card 4


What does pluripotent mean?


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Card 5


What are differentiated cells?


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