Sociology Key Terms

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Banding
A form of streaming
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Birth Rate
The number of live births per thousand of the population per year
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Comparative method
A research method. compares 2 social groups that are alike apart from one factor
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Compensatory education
Government policies to tackle underachievemnt in education with regard to deprived areas (E.g. USA=Operation headstart)
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Comprehensive System
A non selective education system where all children attend the same type of secondary school (Introduced in UK 1965)
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Content Analysis
Method of analysing content of document to find how often themes and words e.t.c occur
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Correspondence Principle
Bowles and Gintis'. Schools correspond to workplace in capitalist society.
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Death rate
Number of deaths per thousand of the population per year
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Dependency culture
People assuming that the state will support them
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Deviance
Behaviour that does not conform to the norms of the social group
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Educational triage
Where schools sort pupils into 3 groups. Will pass, wont pass and needs help to pass. Done to get ahead in league tables
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Emotion work
Any job that is an extension of the housewife role
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Empty shell marriage
Marriage only in name, couple live under same roof but separate lives.
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Exchange theory
Idea that people create, maintain or break off relationships based on costs and benefits of relationship
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Fertility rate
The average number of children women will have during their fertile years (15-44)
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Fordism
Type of industrial production. based on detailed division of labour, closely supervised, low killed and assembly line tech.
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Function
Contribution a part of soceity makes to the stability or wellbeing of society as a whole
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Functional fit
Parsons' theory that nuclear family occurred to fit needs of industrial society
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Gender
The social and cultural characteristics of men and women
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Globalisation
The idea that the world is becoming increasingly interconnected and barrier are disappearing
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Hawthorne Effect
subjects changing their behaviour because they know they are being studied
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Hierarchy
An organisation or social structure based on a pyramid of senior and junior positions
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Ideology
A set of beliefs that serve the interests of a dominant social group (marxists)
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Infant mortality rate
The number of infants who die before their first birthday, per thousand live deaths per year
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Interactionism
A sociological perspective that focuses on small scale individual interactions
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Legitimation
Justifying something by making it seem fair and natural. (Main function of ideology)
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Life chances
The chances that certain social groups have of achieving things that society sees as desirable
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Life course analysis
An approach focusing on the meanings family members give to life events and choices
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Life expectancy
How long, on average, people who are born in a given year can expect to live
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Living apart together (LATs)
Couples who are in a significant relationship but not married or cohabiting
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Macro-level
Perspectives that examine the social structure. (opposite of interactionism)
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Marketisation
Policy of introducing market forces into areas run by the state. NHS, post office and Education system.
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Meritocracy
Educational or social system where all have an equal opportunity to do well
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Micro level
Focus on small scale, face to face interaction
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Mobility (geographical)
Ability to move to other locations to find work e.t.c
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Mobility (social)
Ability to move to a higher strata of society
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Modernism
Believe that society has a clear cut predictable structure, can gain knowledge through science
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Myth of meritocracy
That educational meritocracy is simply legitimization through ideology
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Natural change
The difference between the number of births and number of deaths in a population, resulting in net gain or net decrease
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Net migration
Difference between the number of immigrants entering the country and the number leaving the country
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New vocationalism
The idea that education should be about meeting the needs of the economy, equipping young people with skills for work.
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Nuclear family
A 2 generation family of a man and a woman and their dependent children
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Polarisation
2 opposite extremes
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Post-fordism
Highly skilled and adaptable workforce, combined with computerized technology.
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Flexible specialisation
An economy able to respond swiftly to changing consumer demands
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Post modernism
Society is so unstable that their is no way to gain knowledge about it, no perspective is correct.
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Privatised family
A nuclear family who's lifestyle and leisure centre on home than extended family and work
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Pure relationship
One which exists solely to meet each partner's needs (sex, love and happiness)
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Reserve army of labour
Marxist. Groups who can be brought into the workforce when there is a labour shortage and fired when not needed. (women in the war)
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Role
How someone of a particular status is expected to act
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Selection
The process of choosing and allocating pupils to particular schools, class and stream.
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Separatism
Radical feminism. Women should live independently of men to free themselves from patriarchy.
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Social action theories
See individuals as having free will and choice, they have the power to create society through their actions and interactions.
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Social control
The means by which society tries to ensure it's members do not deviate.
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Speech codes
Restricted (context bound) and elaborated (context free)
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Stabilization of adult personalities
Parsons'. Family allowing adults to relax and have tensions removed.
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Stratified diffusion
The spread of beliefs and practices from one social class to another
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Streaming
Where children are separated into different ability groups.
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Structural theories
See individuals as entirely shaped by society, little free will.
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Symmetrical family
An increase in joint conjugal roles
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Tripartite System
Selective education system. 1944 education act. thos with academic ability = grammar school.
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Underclass
Those at the bottom of the social hierarchy.
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Value concensus
An agreement on what societ values.
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Welfare state
Where the government takes responsibility for people's well being, especially their basic minimum needs.
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Card 2

Front

The number of live births per thousand of the population per year

Back

Birth Rate

Card 3

Front

A research method. compares 2 social groups that are alike apart from one factor

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Government policies to tackle underachievemnt in education with regard to deprived areas (E.g. USA=Operation headstart)

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A non selective education system where all children attend the same type of secondary school (Introduced in UK 1965)

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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