Sociology education roles and functions

What do functionalists believe are the two functions of education?
1. Secondary socialization 2.Preparation for employment
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What does Durkheim argue that education was key to?
1. Socialization (people understand+conform to shared social values 2. Foster social solidarity
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Who say's education is a bridging institution?
Parsons (1950s)
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What are particularistic and universalistic principles?
Paticularistic principles refer to to children being treated as individuals at home, whereas universalistic principles refer to children being treated in relation to meritocracy within education
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What do Davis and Moore argue education does? and why?
It prepares and sorts students for future employment roles, role allocation. This is functional and provides the economy with the right amount of workers with the desired skills therefore inequality is inevitable.
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What is New Right theory?
A right wing, socio-political theory, which incorporates politics and business into it's theories.
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What three things do New Right thinkers believe in relation to education?
1. Parents should have more choice in their child's education (parentocracy) 2. education offers opportunity for all 3. believe private education system is better
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What do Chubb and Moe (1990) argue?
1. Marketisation is beneficial to education 2. More competition there is forces schools to improve to win over parents and students 3. Competition drives up standards
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What do Connor et al and Modood criticise functionalists for?
They ignore the persistent inequalities that occur within education. They found particular groups of students achieve much lower results than other majority groups
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What do Marxists argue the two main functions of education are?
1. Society socializes students into their eventual respective classes (bourgeoisie/proletariat) 2. Prepares students for mundane repetitive banality of labour, but encourage a minority to aspire to higher levels of education and success
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How does education support capitalism according to Marxists?
It ensures students are used to and prepared for mundane labour, obeying rules and being productive. While MC encouraged to have high aspirations and network in school to benefit them later on
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What is the 'myth of meritocracy'?
Bowles and Gintis (1976) - education isn't merotocratic, but is used to convince WC that capitalism is a fair system
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What does Bourdieu (1977) discuss? Which class is at an advantage and why?
Cultural capital - a non financial social asset that promote social mobility. MC are at an advantage due to the capital they possess.
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Who and what is the banking model of education?
Freire (1970) - this is where education is ran by the MC and the WC have MC knowledge and cultural ideals imposed on to them. Students are empty vessels in need of filling up.
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What does Althusser (1971) argue?
Many institutions legitimize inequalities through introducing a particular ideology. Ideological state apparatus (ISA) institutions within a superstructure transmit ruling class values through the apparatus to persuade everyone to adopt MC values.
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What is the hidden curriculum and who discusses it?
Bowles and Gintis (1976) - all informal education learnt and developed within education. Including transmission of norms, values and beliefs.
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What is the correspondence principle, who and example?
Bowles and Gintis (1976) - this identifies the similarities between employment and education. EG. In education students are expected to respect their teachers, in employment staff are expected to respect their boss and those above them.
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What do two things do feminists argue about education?
1. Education perpetuates patriarchal ideology 2. Result in girl's getting lower paid jobs and weaker economic positions
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What do Liberal feminists believe?
Gender inequality stems from male ignorance and strong sex role conditioning - primary socialization
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What is a Liberal feminists solution?
Male education and reform, use policy and legislation
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What do Marxists feminists believe?
Gender inequality comes from the creation of capitalism. That women provide cheap labour and experience further exploitation. Provide unpaid labour within household eg. childcare
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What is a Marxist feminists solution?
Abolish capitalism
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What do Radical feminists believe?
Gender inequality arises from power relations between men and women
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What is a Radical feminists solution?
To challenge the biological, gendered and heteronormative constructs
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What do Difference feminists believe?
Gender inequality needs to incorporate racism. Criticise the ethnocentricity of most feminism as it only focuses on white experience
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What is a Difference feminists solution?
Racism to be recognised and challenged
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What two concerns do feminists have about girls outperforming boys?
1. gendered subject choices 2. Low paid, low status jobs despite educational performance
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What are gendered subjects + examples?
Subjects assigned depending on gender constructs (masculinity/femininity) EG. Male = maths, deal with the finances in the family,high paid jobs such as bankers/Females - textiles,women provide for the family & may have to sew up the clothes
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What is the Interpretive perspecitive?
Postmodernists and interpretivists (symbolic interactionism): focus on experience of education, emphasis on relationship between individual experience of edu. and larger society
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What do postmodernists argue?
Identity is increasingly fluid and changable, many external factors influence their identity which influences their experience of education. More emphasis on the individual in education therefore schools are becoming more customised
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What do interpretivists argue?
They look at the processes within education to understand the meanings of behaviour and are neutral towards the education system and develop ways of understanding what happens in school and how it affects their later life
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What is labelling theory?
Becker - students and teachers label other students, these can be positive or negative. Student internalises the label, self fulfilling prophecy, therefore lives up to the expectation therefore the cycle continues.
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What did Willis (1977) do? RESEARCH IN FOCUS
Used group interviews and participant observations to find WC lads saw education as a waste of time therefore they do minimal work. They felt they were 'learning to labour'
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What is a structuralist view?
When you look at society as a structure and the relationships between social institutions. Macro - approach.
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METHOD IN CONTEXT: what does PERVERT stand for?
Practical issues, Ethical issues, Reliability, Validity, Examples, Representative, Theoretical issues
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What did Rosenthal and Jacobson do? RESEARCH IN FOCUS
Interpretivist approach, power of teachers labelling their students. Teachers told 20% were 'spurters' and those labelled 'spurter' by the teacher made most progress in IQ test.
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Card 2


What does Durkheim argue that education was key to?


1. Socialization (people understand+conform to shared social values 2. Foster social solidarity

Card 3


Who say's education is a bridging institution?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What are particularistic and universalistic principles?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What do Davis and Moore argue education does? and why?


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