Crime and Deviance: Functionalist Theories
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Who are the three key theorists associated with Crime and Deviance: Functionalist Theories?
Emile Durkheim, Robert Merton and Travis Hirschi.
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What was the study conducted by Emile Durkheim known as?
'The Rules of Sociological Method' - (1895 and translated in english in 1938).
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What was the study conducted by Robert Merton known as?
'Social Structure and Anomie' - (1938).
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What was the study conducted by Travis Hirschi known as?
'Causes of Delinquency' - (1969).
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How many key concepts are associated with Crime and Deviance: Functionalist Theories?
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What are the 4 key concepts associated with Crime and Deviance: Functionalist Theories?
Collective Sentiments/Values Concensus, Social Bonds, Anomie and Deviance is Functional.
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Define the key concept: Collective Sentiments/Value Concensus?
The idea that people in society live by a common moral code and that everybody knows the difference between right and wrong. These norms and values are taught to us all by the process of socialisation.
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Define the key concept: Social Bonds?
These are the factors that prevent individuals from committing criminal or deviant acts: belief, attachment, commitment and involvement.
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Define the key concept: Anomie?
To much deviance leads to a sense of anomie. People forget about the value concensus and revert to a selfish state and this leads to society's collapse.
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Define the key concept: Deviance is Functional?
The notion that deviant acts play a positive role in society, e.g. when someone is punished for doing something wrong it deters others from acting in this way.
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What 3 societal institutions do functionalists think have interlocked roles to play in the values of society?
Family, church and the legal system.
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What metaphor can be used to describe the role of society's 3 institutions as described by functionalists?
The human body and its internal organs wherein the heart, lungs and kidneys are analogues to the family, church and legal system.
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how can deviance be included in the functionalist metaphor for the 3 institutions of society (family, church and legal system)?
Deviance has its role in society just as the heart pumping blood around the body. If there is too much devaince then there will be a "heart attack" in society and society becomes ill.
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What are the 3 concepts relating to Durkheim (functionalist) and crime and deviance?
Deterrence, anomie and value concensus.
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What did Durkheim believe created a value concensus of right and wrong in society?
When somenone is caught and punished for a crime they've committed, this acts as a deterrence to the rest of society and a value concensus of right and wrong.
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What did Durkheim believe was a cause for reform of the justice system and society?
If someone is punished unjustly for a crime they've committed.
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What did Durkheim believe leads to a dysfunctional society/anomie?
If crime increases beyond a certain level in society (deviance).
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What did Durkheim believe the rest of society did when a criminial is caught for crime?
The rest of society comes together in disgust and the bonds between them are strengthened (value concensus).
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What is an example of anomie? I.e. when people question the justice system and the personal benefits of crime, thus society collapses?
London Riots of 2011.
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Durkheim evalutaion: positives?
Too much crime (deviance) leads to a dysfunctional society/anomie. E.g. the London Riots of 2011. The riots were due to the death of Mark Duggan, this led to society beign angry as he was unarmed and this led to calls for reform of the justice system
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Durkheim evaluation: negatives?
We have socialised morals of right and wrong which coincide with most laws. It is not necessarily the fear/deterrence of punishment that causes people to not commit crime. E.g. a Christian child would be socialised to not break the 10 Commandments.
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Correct that too much crime/deviance leads to anomie (London Riots 2011). However most peeople are law abiding to socialised moral of right and wrong causing a value concensus.
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What did Robert Merton (functionalist) argue that all people in American society shared/value concensus?
The common goal of wanting to become rich and successful.
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For what reason did Merton believe was the reason for people not all reaching the American Dream?
Different positions in the social structure.
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What did Merton believe people who couldn't achieve the American Dream by legitimate means turn to?
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What are Merton's ideas commonly referred to as?
The Strain Theory.
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What American period's value concensus was to attain the American Dream?
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What did Merton claim that the vast majority who didn't achieve the American Dream feel?
A sense of normlessness (anomie).
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What is Merton's Strain Theory?
The people who failed to achieve the American Dream, knew what they were supposed to do but had not been able to do it.
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How did Merton differ from Durkheim?
Durkheim only identified one anomic state whereas Merton claimed there are five possible states of anomie resulting from people's reactions to the strain caused by the means and goals of American society.
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What are Merton's 5 anomic states in the Strain Theory?
Conformity, Innovation, Ritualism, Retreatism and Rebellion.
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Define the anomic state of conformity?
Where an individual accepts both means and goals, even though they will probably fail to attain them/the dream. The typical law-abiding citizen.
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Define the anomic state of innovation?
A person who wants to be successful but achieves the goals by illegitimate means - crime.
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Define the anomic state or ritualism?
A person that accepts the value of hard work but forgets what they are doing it all for.
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Define the anomic state of retreatism?
Someone that simply gives up trying to attain the American Dream and turns to alcohol or other drugs.
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Define the anomic state of rebellion?
Those people who reject the means and the goals that prevail and seek to replace them with an alternative set of norms and values which they advocate, e.g. hippies.
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Merton evaluation: positives?
Many people are conformists as there are many people with 9-5 jobs but aren't living the American Dream.
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Merton evaluation: negatives?
Rebel is very unlikely in 2016 as this was only last largely seen in the 1970s with hippies.
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Conformist anomie is common proving Strain Theory of having the American Dream as a goal. Too many types of anomic states as some states are too similar to others. E.g. conformist is similar to ritualist and innovator is similar to retreatist.
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What did Travis Hirschi try to explain differently to Merton (functionalism)?
Why people do not commit crime rather than why they do.
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What did Hirschi claim humans naturally were?
Naturally weak willed.
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What did Hirschi claim humans acquire through socialisation?
Social bonds that deter them from engaging in criminal activities.
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What does Hischi's views of socialisation echoe?
Echoes Durkheim's contention that unless we are integrated into society we will revert to our 'natural' anomic state of being selfish.
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What did Hirschi argue would happen if social bonds were weakened?
People may drift into crime.
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What diud Hirschi state about the social bond/concept involvement in relation to crime?
If people have an active social life (e.g. playing sport or participating in relgious activities) they won't have enough time to be involved in crime.
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Travis Hirschi evaluation: positives?
Many people are heavily involved in work, leisure or other activities. Most of society has a daily involvement, e.g. the British unemployment rate is 5% and around this figure. Thus many people cannot have time for crime.
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Travis Hirschi evaluation: negatives/
Many people have a strong will. Thus the low unemployment rate of 5% in Britain. Also most of society are conformist anomic states as they believe in working a 9-5 job for the American Dream.
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Difficult to prove Hirschi's view of the will of the people to be true or not. How would you measure it? But true that 2016 UK society is too involved for crime. E.g. 5% unemployment rate.
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Crime and Deviance: Applied Functionalism - Suicide.
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Who is the only key theorist in the topic of Crime and Deviance: Applied Functionalism - Suicide?
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In what work did Durkheim discuss the topic of suicide?
'Suicide: A Study in Sociology' - 1897.
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What are the 3 key concepts of suicide and Emile Durkheim?
Positivism, Social Facts and Suicide Rates as Social Facts.
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Define the key concept: positivsm?
The belief that sociologists should be objective and adopt a scientific methodological approach when researching their chosen area of inestigation.
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Define the key concept: Social Facts?
Something that we, as individuals, have no control over (external), however they are able to control the actions of an individual (constraint). For example, the weather - I cannot stop it from raining; if it does rain, I may have to change my plans.
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Define the key concept: Rates as Social Facts?
The belief that suicide rates constitute accurate facts and, therefore, can be utilised in the same way as the results gained from a scientific experiment.
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What two common sense theories have been produced to try and explain the reason for suicide?
Insanity and Climate.
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What did Durkheim want to prove about the cause of suicide?
Wanted to prove scientifially, that far from being random and individual, the act of suicide was the product of structural factors.
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What did Durkheim believe would happen to sociology if he could prove suicide was caused by structural factors?
Sociology would become recognised as the mother of all sciences.
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Why did Durkheim choose to stufy suicide?
Because of the availability of official statisitics and as a test of the comparative method which he had previously developed.
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What did Durkheim study/examine relating to suicide?
Examined the avaiblable suicide statistics from a number of European countries over a 20 year period.
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What did Durkheim argue about the suicide statisitics he studied/examined?
They were the key to discovering the cause of this phenomenon (suicide causes).
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What did Durkheim's analysis of the suicide statistics reveal?
Revealed that the suicide rate was relatively stable over a 20 year period.
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What did Durkheim argue about suicide from the results of his analysis of suicide statisitcs?
He argued suicide is the product of external factors and membership of social groups, as opposed to anything associated with an individual's psych.
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Why did Durkheim argue what he did about external factors causing suicide?
This is because if suicide were an entirely personal entity the statistical patterns would be very erratic and random.
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What did Durkheim discover about constraint relating to suicide causes by external factors?
The amount of constraint each group has over its members also affects suicide rates.
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What did Durkheim conclude about suicide statistics due to his research?
Suicide statisitics can be regarded as social facts (accurate, objective data) against which to measure cause and affect.
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What variables did Durkheim use to achieve his findings and conclusions?
Rates of suicide in different countries; in different regions within countries; by different social groups (married and unmarried); by different religious groups (Protestants, Jews and Catholics).
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What did Durkheim proceed to do after using his variables to achieve his conclusion of suicide statistics are regarded as social facts?
Then proceeded to establish a correlation between the respective variables he had identified (a multivariate analysis).
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What did Durkheim find from his correlations between the respective variables?
Protestant countries higher than Catholics and Jews, married couples with children less likely than childless couples who in turn have a lower rate of suicide than single people.
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As a functionalist what is one the of the central features of his sociological analysis?
The concept of social regulation and intergration.
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What is Durkheim's concept of social regulatio and intergration?
Humab beings are natually un-sociable animals and if left to their own devices would look after themselves at the expense of other members of society and greed and self-interest would prevail.
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What did Durkheim believe binds people together to live in harmony?
Having a shared set of norms and values (concerning what constitutes right and wrong) binds people together to live in harmony. Durkheim called this collective conscience.
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What did Durkheim believe individuals had to go through to achieve the collective conscience?
Go through a process of socialisation which isn achieved by social institutions such as the family and the Church/Synagogue.
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What is an example of the socialisation which Durkheim describes?
Individuals most closely tied to society come from close-knit families with a strong sense of mutual inter-dependence. They can then apply these social skills to other members of society with whom they interact; the converse is also true.
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Give an example of socialisation through religion as described by Durkheim?
Protestants stress the importance of individuals, and don't stress same level of socialisation compared to Catholics and Hindus which places emphasis on self-sacrifice for others.
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What did Durkheim apply his theory of social intergration to?
The statistics he had evaluated and was able to derive the following categories of suicide: altruistic, egoistic, anomic and fatalistic.
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Define Durkheim's altruistic suicide?
Opposite of egoisitc, occurs because an individual has excess intergration into society and believe in self-sacrifice for others. E.g. Hindu women threw themselves onto their husbands' funeral pyres (suttee).
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Define Durkheim's egoistic suicide?
Individual has been insufficiently intergrated into social groups and the society to which they belonged. Accounts for higher suicide rates in Protestant countries rather than Catholics and Jews. Also married people as opposed to un-married people.
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Define Durkheim's anomic suicide?
Relates to Durkheim's concept of anomie (people are naturally self-interested and need to be regulated by the collective conscience to enable them to live in harmony). Product of insufficient regualtion ad occurs in times of social + economic change.
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Define Durkheim's Fatalistic Suicide?
Mirrors anomic suicide in that society is so repressive that individual freedom is effectively denied. Excess regulation=suicide. E.g. many Jews committed suicide in Nazi Concentration Camps in WW2.
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Crime and Deviance: Applied Functionalism - Subculture.
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Who are the 3 key theorists associated with Crime and Deviance: Applied Functionalism - Subculture and what are their studies?
Albert Cohen ('Delinquent Boys, the Culture of the Gang' - 1955), Cloward and Ohlin ('Delinquency and Opportunity' - 1961) and Walter B. Miller ('Lower Class Subculture ...' - 1962).
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What are the 3 key concepts associated with Cohen, Cloward and Ohlin and Miller and Crime and Deviance: Applied Functionalism - Subculture?
Subculture, Delinquent Subcuture and Moral Bind of Society.
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Define the key concept: Subculture?
The notion that certain groups develop distinct norms and values which differ from those held by people in mainstram society.
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Define the key concept: Delinquent Subculture?
The idea that the collective conscience of people in subcultural groups promotes a lifestyle and values actions which are considered to be deviant by the other members of society.
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Define the subculture: Moral Bind of Society?
The idea that people contrain their behaviour because they have been socialised into knowing the difference between right and wrong.
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Where do functionalist subcultural theories of deviance derive from?
Derive from the earlier functionalist explanations and adapt many of the concepts derived by Durkheim and Merton.
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what do functionalist subcultural theories argue about deviance?
Deviance is not only the produce of an individual's position within the social structure but, in addition, they contend that delinquents have a distinctive set of norms and values (subculture).
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What did functionalist subcultural theories contend about delinquent subculture?
In the delinquent subculture the value concensus may actively promote and reward actions which are considered to be deviant in the collective conscience of the mainstream culture. Therefore, deviant behaviour performs a function for members.
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What are the two reasons why Albert Cohen is critical of Robert Merton?
Delinquency is a collective rather than an individual response to their position within the class structure. Merton's theory did not account for criminal activities which didn't lead to financial reward - non-utilitarian crime.
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What did Cohen develop the idea of to try to explain non-utilitarian crime?
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Most delinquents are looked down on by whom and denied what?
Looked down upon by society and denied status.
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What did delinquents develop which gave them other ways of getting status?
Distinct set of values.
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What type of boys are most likely to commit delinquent acts?
Boys in the lower streams of school.
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Why are the boys in the lower streams at school most likely to commit delinquent acts?
They do not feel that they have any worth in the institution nor do teachers think that they have got anything to offer and suffer cultural deprivation.
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What do delinquent boys do in response to their feeling of lack of worth?
They develop a distinct subculture.
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What is the boys delinquent subculture usually a reversal of?
Usually a reversal of the school rules and values.
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Why is the delinquent boys subculture a reversal of the schools rules and values?
This behaviour is condemned by wider society and it gains recognition and status within the subculture.
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What two functions did Cohen argue the delinquent subculute performs?
Enables members to demonstrate frustration by breaking the ruels and ignoring the norms and values whihc are acepted by mainstream society. Successful members gain recognition and prestige in the eyes of the press.
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Give some different types of delinquent behaviour?
People may sniff glue or take illegal drugs or steal cars or burgle houses.
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What is Cloward and Ohlin's illegitimate opportunity structure?
The level of opportunity depended upon the surrounding circumstances.
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Where is the criminal subculture most likely to exist?
Most likely to exist in stable working class communities where there are extensive contacts with the illegitimate structure.
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What type of people are in the illegitimate structure for people to follow?
Role models who have done well with the illegitimate structure for people to follow.
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How might the career of someone in the illegitimate structure go?
At 10 steal car aerials. At 14 steal car radios. At 17 steal the whole car. At 21 steal the whole car ans sell it. Enter the arena of organised crime.
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What happens in the conflict subculture?
The conditions of the illegitimate structure do not exist so a lucrative criminal career is not available.
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What is Walter B. Miller's criticism of Albert Cohen and Cloward and Ohlin?
Their ideas assume the subcultural groups are aware of the norms and values held by mainstream members of society.
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What point of Cohen's and Cloward and Ohlin's does Miller disagree with?
Because they cannot succeed using the conventional route they develop an alternative value concensus which gives them an opportunity to gain prestige.
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What did Miller contend about subcultural groups differently to Cohen and Cloward and Ohlin?
The working clas have an entirely different set of cultural values which actively promote deviant behaviour.
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What focal concerns did Miller think the working class's different set of norms and valus of devianrt acts encourages?
Toughness, smartness and excitement.
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Define Miller's working class focal concerns of toughness?
They want to demonstrate 'tough' qualities such as being able to drink large volumes of alcohol.
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Define Miller's focal working class concern of smartness?
Looking good and being sharp.
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Define Miller's working class focal concern of excitement?
They are always on the look out for 'fun'.
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Why has Miller been criticised?
The focal concerns which he identified are not exclusively associated with the working class.
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What is a second criticism of Miller?
He makes the unrealistic assumption that their commitment to working class culture is so strong that it enables these people to resist the power of schools and the mass media to socialise them into the mainstream norms and values.
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What hasn't been able to support Miller's claims?
No other sociological investigation into working class delinqunecy has been able to support Miller's claims.
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What is the third and final criticism of Miller?
He doesn't explain why a small minority of the working classes resort to criminal activities - the rest are law abiding citiznes.
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Crime and Deviance: Labelling Theory.
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Who are the 3 key theorists of Crime and Deviance: Labelling Theory and what are their studies?
Howard Becker ('The Outsiders' - 1963), Edwin Lemert ('Human Deviance, Social Problems and Social Control' - 1972) and Jock Young ('The Drug Takers' - 1971).
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What are the 4 key concepts associated with Crime and Deviance: Labelling Theory?
Social Construction of Deviant Acts, Labelling of Acts as Deviant, Master Status/Deviant Self Image and Self Fulfilling Prophecy.
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Define the key concept: Social Construction of Deviant Act?
What is deemed to be right or wrong is determined by the context and the participants as opposed to the nature of the act itself.
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Define the key concept: Labelling of Acts as Deviant?
It is only when an individual has been publically accused of deviance that the act becomes deviant.
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Define the key concept: Master Status/Deviant Self Image?
If the label lazy is successfully applied it will change the way other people percieve the actor themselves to the extent that that is the only feature of their personality they recognise.
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Define the key concept: Self Fulfilling Prophecy?
Once the master status has been accepted by the deviant, Lazy Fred will see himself as lazy and will thereafter act in a lazy way even if he had not been truly lazy before.
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What is Howard Becker critical of?
Critical of the assumption of funcitonalist and marxist sociologists that all people that have committed the same deviant act make up a homogeneous (identical) group and that one can, correlate social strucutre position to cause of crime.
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What does Becker argue about deviant and innocent individuals?
Many innocent individuals may have been successfully labelled as deviant whereas many guilty may not have been.
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What did Becker argue about the actual deviant act?
The actual deviant act isn't important, it is the aftermath of the labelling which is significant: interactions that take place within a social group and one who is viewed, by that group, as a ruler-breaker.
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What is Becker's famous statement that summarises how the deviant act is not important but the labelling afterwards is?
"Social groups create deviance by making the rules whose infraction constitutes deviance".
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What did Edwin Lemert differentiate between?
Differentiated between primary and secondary deviance.
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What is Lemert's primary deviance?
Primary deviance relates to actions which have not been publically labelled. E.g. the affair between teacher and pupil.
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Define Lemert's secondary deviance?
Is when an individual has been labelled as having broken the rules of a social group.
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Why did Lemert argue there is no point in trying to analyse primary deviance?
It doesn't affect the deviant's self-concept, moreover the only factor which secondary deviants share is that they have been defined as such.
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The causes of primary deviance are of no significance but what is important?
Disapproval, degradation and isolation which the individual experiences from society in subsequent interactions.
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Therefore, what is the 'major' cause of deviance?
The blame for the deviance lies with the agentsof social control (peers, employers, police, media etc) rather than with the deviant.
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What society does Lemert use an an example to stress the importance of the agents of social control and deviance?
The North Pacific Coastal Indians for whom speech-making is an important part of their culture and its correctness is stressed. Consequently, kids stutter, whereas neighbouring tribes without this focus on speech do not produce stuttering kids.
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Who did Jock Young research?
Researched hippies in Notting Hill who, as part of their alternative lifestyle, smoked marijuana.
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What did Jock Young argue about the police's image of hippies?
The police had a false image that all hippies had long hair and were good-for-nothing junkies and, therefore, deviant.
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What was the reality of hippies?
Many hippies rejected their former lifestyles and started to act according to the label - accepting a deviant master status.
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What did the hippie lifestyle result in for hippies?
Resulted in a self-fulfilling prophecy wherein the hippies felt they were separate from mainstream society, and, so, came intro greater conflict with the authorities because they became the work-lazy people they'd been labelled to be.
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Crime and Deviance: Applied Interactionism - Moral Panics.
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Who are the 3 key theorists for Crime and Deviance: Applied Interactionism - Moral Panics, and what are their studies?
Stan Cohen ('Folk Devils and Moral Panics' - 1972), Michael Fishman ('Crime Waves as Ideology - 1973) and Geoffrey Pearson ('Hooligan: A History of Respectable Fears' - 1983).
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What are the 3 key concepts relating to Crime and Deviance: Applied Interactionism - Moral Panics?
Deviance Amplification, Folk Devils and Moral Panics.
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Define the key concept: Deviance Amplification?
When a group becomes labelled as deviant (by agencies of social control, e.g. media). A vicious circle develops where the group (e.g. ravers) are identified as folk devils so get hassled by the police. Therefore they commit more deviant acts.
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Define the key concept: Folk Devils?
A group (e.g. punks) become identified as being responsible for societal problems such as juvenile delinquency and are persecuted in the same way as our ancestors in witch hunts.
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Define the key concept: Moral Panics?
How the media exaggerates, distorts and symbolises the actions of a deviant group so that the public becomes even more afraid which creates a self-fulfilling prophecy: video nasties, devil dogs, mugging, ecstasy and teenage single mothers.
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Explain footbale hooliganism as an example of moral panic?
1980s violence in football. Football hooligan born after events such as Hillsborough. Football fans labeleld as folk devils. Media predicted further violence. Devinat self-image. Moral panic. Spiral of deviance amplification.
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What does Stan Cohen focus on?
Regarded as a classic sociological study and focuses upon the aftermath of incidents which occured between mods and rockers at Clacton during Easter of 1964.
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What does Cohen argue about the aftermath of the incidents between the mods and rockers at Clacton during Easter of 1964?
He argues, that because no major news had broken, the press picked up on the story and blew it out of proportion. Shock headlines followed by a prediction of further violence between the rival groups on the coming Whitson Bank Holiday (distortion).
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What did the press also construct for each group according to Cohen?
The press socially constructed an image for each group. (Mods drove scooters and wore mohair suits and parkas whereas rockers drove motorbikes and dressed in leather).
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Why did the press socially construct images of the mods and rockers?
So they as folk devils could be easily identified as troublemakers by ordinary law-abiding citizens (symbolisation).
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What followed the press's socially constructed symbolisation of the mods and rockers?
A moral panic which followed led to the development of a control culture whereby police, judges and the general public were sensitised into harassing any young person who fitted this stereotypical image.
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What did Cohen conclude about the media and seaside confrontations between the mods and rockers from 1966-67?
The media created a spiral of deviance amplification which resulted in numerous seaside confrontations between mods and rockers until 1967.
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What did Michael Fishman's work demonstrate?
His research demonstrated how media reporting of mugging of the elderly in the USA created the impression that there was a crime wave, whereas statisitics revealsed that the number of offences was decreasing.
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What did Fishman contend about the media and crime?
Media concentrates on mugging during periods where no other major stories are breaking.
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Why did Fishman contend that the media focuses on crime when no other stories are breaking?
The theme of street crime can tie together a number of stories ranging from human interest (getting over adversity) to giving politicians an oportunity to make sound bites (e.g. tough on crime, the causes of crime) to court case coverage).
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What would the media's coverage of crime ultimately create?
Create further deviance and, therefore, generate more eye-catching stories to sell their papers.
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What did Geoffrey Pearson examine?
Examined the way in which the socially constructed nature of youth and particularly youth subculture has created a false association between young people and deviance.
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What is the result of young people being labelled as deviant by the agents of social control (media)?
Agents of social control are more likely to label the behaviour of a young person as being deviant whereas an older person is unlikely to be labelled.
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What then happens from young people being labelled as deviant by the agents of social control?
Then creates a socially constructed statistical pattern that validates the original situation/action.
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What ensures after statistics proving the original action?
Deviance amplificaiton spiral will ensue wherein more and more young people will be categorised as wrong-doers, creating a self fulfilling prophecy such that young people aspire to become deviant and, ultimately youth becomes synonymous with crime.
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Crime and Deviance: Applied Interactionism - Suicide.
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Who are the 3 key theorists associated with: Crime and Deviance: Applied Interactionism - Suicide? Also what are their studies?
J.D. Douglas ('The Social Meaning of Suicide' - 1967), Jean Baechler ('Suicides' - 1979) and M. Dorais ('Dead Boys Can't Dance - Sexual Orientation, Masculinity and Suicide' - 2004).
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What are the two key concepts associated with: Crime and Deviance: Applied Interactionism - Suicide?
Subjective Sociology and Social Meanings.
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Define the key concept: Subjective Sociology?
The belief that sociologists should seek to explore the social construction of meanings by individuals as opposed to attempting to be like scientists.
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Define the key concept: Social Meanings?
The idea that all actions made by individual actors have symbolic meanings behind them which are influenced by other people they interact with.
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What did J.D. Douglas argue that any sociological account of suicide should focus on?
Focus upon the social processes that lead up to the inclusion of a death in the suicide statistics.
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What does Douglas argue about the way in which a verdict of suicide is negotiated?
Would inevitably confirm Durkheim's theory of social intergration.
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Why would the way in which a verdict of suicide is negotiated inevitably confirm Durkheim's theory of social intergration?
When a person comes from a close-knit social group, they are likely to have friends and family members who would be in a strong position to convince those investigating the suspicious death that it wasn't, in fact, a suicide.
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What are the police able to do according to Douglas?
The police are more likely to label a loner or a mentally ill person, who, according to Durkheim's theory is less integrated into society.
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What is not surprising to Douglas about Durkheim's comparative method?
Durkheim's comparative method revealed this relationship because, in reality, the degree of intergration simply affects the chances of sudden death being recorded as suicide.
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What did Douglas also evaluate of Dukheim's study?
Somewhat farcide to assume that because the label suicide has been successfully applied to the social act of an individual taking their own life doesn't mean these people constitute a homogeneous group. Links to Howard Becker's views.
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What are some examples of suicide that cannot constitute a homogeneous group?
When a businessman in a modern industrial society kills himself because his business has collapsed it is a different act from the suicide of an elederly Inuit (Eskimo), who kills himself for the benefit of his society at a time of food shortage.
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What does each act of suicide have behind it according to Douglas?
Each act has a different motive behind it and a social meaning that is related to the society in which it took place. However an analyis of suicide couldn't reveal this.
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What did Douglas contend about the use of official statistics?
The notion that sociologists can use official statistics as the basis for a theory was flawed.
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What did Douglas think sociologists should do instead to form a basis for a suicide theory instead of official statistics?
Instead, they should examine individual cases; using research methods such as informal interviews and consulting secondary sources of information such as suicide notes and diaries of the deceased person.
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What is the researcher able to gain from using methods such as informal interviews and suicide notes and diaries of the deceased person?
Gain a valid insight as to the social meanings which led to a decision to commit suicide.
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What did Douglas not actually do?
Didn't actually put his theory into practice, but he did suggest that there are 4 main motives behind an act of suicide in Western industrial society.
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What are Douglas's 4 main reasons for suicide in Western industrial society?
Transformation of the Soul, Transformation of the Self, Means of Achieving Fellow Feeling and Means of Gaining Revenge.
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Define transformation of the soul as a cause of suicide in Western industrial society?
To gain release from the cares of this world and to enter paradise or heaven.
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Define transformation of the self as a cause of suicide in western industrial society?
Getting others to think of you differently.
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Define means of achieving fellow feeling as a cause of suicide in western industrial society?
In order to gain sympathy.
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Define means of gaining revenge as a cause of suicide in western industrial society?
To make others feel guilty.
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What did Jean Baechler develop?
Douglas just presented a theory without actually conducting the research and Baechler developed his approach to create his own model.
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What did Baechler's case studies reveal?
Revealed that there were disctinct social meanings behind suicidial acts. There were 4.
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What are the 4 social meanings behind suicidal acts?
Aggressive suicides, oblative suicide, ludic and escapist.
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Define aggressive suicides?
A way of harming others around them.
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Define oblatuive suicuide?
A way of achieving something that is particularly valued by the person, e.g. being with a loved one after death.
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Define ludic suicide?
Taking risks that may lead to death.
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Define escapist suicide?
An attempt to escape from an intolerable situation.
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What did Michael Dorais use to attempt to allow him to understand the attempted suicides of 32 young homosexual men in Canada?
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What did Dorais discover?
The meaning of these attempted suicides was to escape from homophobic persecution they experienced.
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What is ironic about Dorias's findings?
He found that gay men were less intergrated into society thereby supporting Durkheim's original anlysis of suicide.
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What did Dorais claim about interpretative methods?
Dorais claimed that using interpretative methods were the best route to understanding this deviant act.
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Crime and Deviance: Phenomenology.
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Who is the only key theorist associated with: Crime and Deviance: Phenomenology?
Aaron Cicourel ('The Social Organisation of Juvenile Justice' - 1976).
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What are the two key concepts associated with: Crime and Deviance: Phenomenology?
Negotiation of Deviance and Social Actors.
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Define the key concept: Negotiation of Deviance?
The idea that the definition of deviance is relative as opposed to absolute. The decision as to whether, or not, an act is labelled as deviant is dependent upon a process of negotiation between the various interested parties (e.g. parent and child).
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Define the key concept: Social Actors?
The idea that when we mix with other people we change our behaviour - a teenager will behave differently with their peers than they would with their parents. This isn't neutral as actors' behaviour is influenced by thier mutual perceptions.
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What did Aaron Cicourel look at?
Looked at the treatment by the judiciary of delinquents in California.
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What did the police do when they interrogated a suspect?
They already had a pre-defined image of that individual. E.g. they came from a bad area or are the wrong sort etc.
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What may/may not happen to the individual being seen to by police?
The interaction may/may not lead to arrest: in part it depends on whether, or not, the individual conforms to the stereotype of a typical deviant held by the officer concerned.
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What did Cicourel's research demonstrate?
Once arrested, the alleged deviant is more liekly to be charged if their background conforms to that of the typical deviant. Therefore a close relationship between deviance and social class.
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What is the middle class relationship between deviance and social class?
Middle class kids had parents, futures and showed remorese which meant that they were defined as ill rather than deviant, whereas working class children were rarely given a second chance.
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Where can evidence to support Cicourel be found?
In the different treatment being meted out to a middle class drug taker when compared to a working class juckie.
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Whose work/analysis has many similarities with Cicourel?
J.M. Atkinson's analysis of the phenomenon of suicide has many similarities with the work of Cicourel.
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Crime and Deviance: Applied Phenomenology - Suicide.
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Who is the only key theorist associated with: Crime and Deviance: Applied Phenomenology - Suicide?
J.M. Atkinson ('Applied Suicide' - 1978).
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What is the only key concept associated with Crime and Deviance: Applied Phenomenology - Suicide?
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Define the key concept: Social Negotiation?
The belief that there are no concrete truths and how an action is percieved with depends on negotiation between the interested parties.
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What is an example of the key concept: Social Negotiation?
E.g. suicide is a mortal sin for Catholics and the relatives of the deceased would, therefore, be more likely to try to convince the authorities that it was an accident then would those from a Protestant background.
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Atkinson's analysis is complementary in many ways to what other sociologist?
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Who is Atkinson critical of?
Severely critical of Durkheim's assumption that a real state of suicide exists, as an objective reality waiting to be discovered.
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What does Atkinson think of official statistics of suicide?
Official statistics merely represent the number of people who have been officialy deemed to have taken their own lives and are, therefore, meaningless.
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What of Douglas's views is Atkinson critical of?
Critical of Douglas's beliefe that it is possible to uncover the social meanings behind an individual decision to commit suicide.
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What does Atkinson contend that sociologists are only able to do relating to suicide?
They're only able to achieve the process of social negotiation which leads to some suspicious deaths becoming suicides, whereas others are not.
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What qualitative methodological techniques did Atkinson employ in his suicide reseach?
Observation of a coroner's office and attending inquests and informal interviews with coroners.
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What did Atkinson conclude about his suicide research?
Coroners have a pre-conceived model of what a suicidal person should look like. When they're confronted with evidence concerning a suspicious death they're likely to declare a verdict of suicide if the facts fit their common sense theory.
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How many pieces of evidence did Atkinson conlude are the key factors which coroners use to determine whether, or not, an individual took their life deliberately?
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What are the 4 pieces of evidence, Atkinson argues coroners use to determine whether, or not, an individual took their own life deliberately?
1. Suicide note or declaration of intent to take one's life. 2. Cause of death, e.g. hanging instead of car crash. 3. Location and circumstances of death as victim doesn't want to be found until they're dead. 4. Life history and medical condition.
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Crime and Deviance: Traditional Marxism.
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Who are the 3 key theorists associated with: Crime and Deviance - Traditional Marxism?
1. Laureen Snider ('The Politics of Corporate Crime Control' - 1993), Steven Box ('Power, Crime and Mystification' - 1983) and David Gordon ('Class and the Economics of Crime' - 1976).
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What are the 4 key concepts associated with: Crime and Deviance - Traditional Marxism?
Manipulation of Values, Law Creation, Enforcement of Law and Corporate/White Collar Crime.
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Define the key concept: Manipulation of Values?
How the ruling classes influence people through insitutions such as the education system, courts, mass media about what is deemed to be a deviant act.
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Define the key concept: Law Creation?
Laws are created to protect the interests of the ruling classes.
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Define the key concept: Enforcement of Law?
The police and judiciary are servants of the ruling class and legitimately punish those who threaten the status quo.
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Define the key concept: Corporate/White Collar Crime?
The deviant activities of non-manual workers such as tax evasion, fraud and insider share dealing.
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What is Frank Pearce's definition of the Ideology of Traditional Marxism?
"Concentrating on lower-class criminals is functional in maintaining the class system. If criminals are also social failures then their criminality is caused by thier 'inadequacies' and major social institutions aren't exposed to criminal assessment"
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What does Frank Pearce imply from his definition of the Ideology of Traditional Marxism?
The masses believe that crime is committed by people like themselves and the working class turns its anger on itself rather than the ruling class which causes the structural inequalities. The criminals are the ruling class who maintain the system.
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What is Corporate Tax Evasion regarded as according to Marxists?
Regarded as a victimless crime of little importance to the average man or woman in the street. Few people are aware of the cost of corporate crime.
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What does Inland Revenue see Corporate Tax Evasion as?
Inland Revenue sees prosecutions as a last resort and seeks to settle cases in and out of court settlements.
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What are expert accountants paid to do relating to Corporate Tax Evasion?
Expert accountants are paid to discover and utilise loopholes in the tax system - it is legal.
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How many prosecutions were there for tax evasion with what cost?
In 1998 there were 20 prosecutions for tax evasion with an estimated cost of £5 billion.
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What do Marxists think of working class benefit fraud?
Has been presented by the government as one of the most serious problems for society, which costs the ordinary tax payer millions of pounds each year.
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What are politicians currently trying to develop relating to working class benefit fraud?
Politicians are currently trying to develop more sophisticated payment books, I.D. cards to prevent abuse of the system and the media have also highlighted cases of dole scroungers.
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How many prosecutions were there for benefit fraud in 1988 at what cost?
In 1988 there were 14,000 prosecutions for benefit fraud with an estimated cost of £500 million.
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What is the key concept of manipulation of values in greater detail?
Ruling class have developed one set of rules applying to the working class and one for the middle/upper classes to the extent that same crime defrauding, H.M. Treasury (termed tax evasion or benefit fraud) is viewed differently cost and extent wise.
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What is the key concept of: The Process of Law Making in more detail?
Little has been done to tighten up loopholes in the tax laws whereas considerable thought is going into how to crackdown on benefit fraud.
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Explain the key concept of: The Enforcment of Law in more detail?
Police who work in Benefit Offices and the general public are actively encouraged to shop a scrounger, this crime is taken seriously. Tax evasion is usually resolved in an amicable way without police involvement, let alone the courts or mass media.
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What did Laureen Snider argue?
She argues that corporate crime (fraud, failure to enforce health and safety directives) is far more serious than street crime (burglary, murder) both in terms of cost and loss of life.
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Why did Snider think that the latter is deemed worse than the former?
Due to the manipulation of values street crime is deemed worse than corporate crime both in terms of public perception and attitudes of law enforcement agencies.
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How does Snider think that white collar crime is dealt with compared to criminal activities of the working classes?
White collar crime is policed internally and rarely results in prosecution; this isn't the case for the criminal activites of the working classes.
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Why did Steven Bow draw similar conclusions to Snider?
As regards to the difference in perception of corporate crime to street crime.
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What did Steven Box focus on?
The issue of intent.
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What is Steven Box's issue of intent?
When an armed robber shoots an innocent by-stande, the agencies of social control and the public deem this to be callous and cowardly act which should be punished but if a factory manager fails to give right clothes and someone dies, he's negligent.
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What does Steven Box contend about both the robber and the manager?
Box contends that the robber and manager had little regard for the safety of others, and should be punished the same way. They're both deviant due to their position in society. The manager to meet targets and the robber for materialistic objects.
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What did David Gordon examine?
Examined the process of selective law enforcement and how this serves to protect the capitalist system as a whole.
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What is an example of how Gordon thinks selective law enforement protects the capitalist system as a whole?
If certain members of the working class are considered to be criminals who deserve to be punished, then the ruling class are seen to be protecting the interests of ordinary people.
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What does Gordon think of the manipulation of values?
The manipulation of values means that the reason for such deviant behaviour is the product of individual failings as opposed to structural problems of society.
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What does Gordon think of the few prosecutions?
The few prosecutions that are the result of corporate crime further the illusion that the capitalist system benefits all members of society.
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Crime and Deviance: The New Criminology.
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Who is the only key theorist relating to: Crime and Deviance: The New Criminology?
Taylor, Walton and Young ('The New Criminology' - 1973).
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What are the only 2 key concepts relating to: Crime and Deviance: The New Criminology?
Fully Social Theory of Deviance and Crime as a Political Act.
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Define the key concept: Fully Social Theory of Deviance?
Combining the structural aspects of traditional Marxism with the focus and insights of labelling theory in order to explain why some individuals resort to crime and others, in the same situation, do not.
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Define the key concept: Crime as a Political Act?
The notion that deviant activities are a deliberate and conscious way of fighting against the inequalities of the capitalist system.
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What did the New Criminologists seek to do?
Sought to produce a fully social theory of deviance seeking to combine the insights of labelling theory and traditional Marxism.
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What did the New Criminologists's fully social theory of deviance place emphasis on?
Great emphasis upon the context of the act which recognised how and why certain acts are defined as deviant (similar to Snider and Box) and societal reaction to the deviant like Becker and Lemert.
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What is the key difference between Taylor, Walton and Young and interactionists?
New Criminology stressed that crime is a deliberate and conscious act with a political motive.
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What did the New Criminologists want to reject?
Wanted to reject the idea of functionalist writers such as Merton and Cloward and Ohlin.
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What was the commonly held belief when Taylor, Walton and Young were writing?
Commonly held belief that sociology was too sympathetic towards the deviant (which almost excused their anti-social behaviour).
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In essence, what did Taylor, Walton and Young attempt to produce a theory of?
A theory which recognised that the deviant was in some way responsible for their criminal actions, in spite of the fact that a label may have been applied to their actions by someone more powerful than themselves and the law, which they have broken.
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What suits the ruling class in response to labelling according to Taylor, Walton and Young?
It may well suit those in the ruling classes that only a small minority, actually commit crimes in response.
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What is the task for sociology relating to deviance according to Taylor, Walton and Young?
The task of sociology is to uncover the personal reason why an individual chooses the path of deviance.
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What did Taylor, Walton and Young develop?
They developed a model which they intended the other sociologists should emply to understand deviant behaviour.
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What did the sociologist, Gilroy, use to evaluate the politically motivated nature of crime committed by black people?
Used the model created by the New Criminologists Taylor, Walton and Young.
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How many aspects of the New Criminologists', Taylor, Walton and Young are there in their model to understand deviant behaviour?
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What are the 7 aspects of the New Criminologists' model to understand deviant behaviour (Taylor, Walton and Young)?
1. Wider origins of the deviant act. 2. Immediate origins of the deviant act. 3. The act itself. 4. Immediate origins of social reaction. 5. Wider origins of social reaction. 6. Outcome of the societal reaction on deviant's further action. ...
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What is the 7th aspect of the New Criminologists' model to understand deviant behaviour (Taylor, Walton and Young)?
7. Nature of deviant process as a whole.
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Define: wider origins of the deviant act?
All actions in society need to be understood in relation to the ecomic structure of capitalist society (from traditional Marxism).
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Define: immediate origins of the deviant act?
What makes an individual commit crime (e.g. poverty may lead to mugging, boredom may result in joy-riding or vandalism.
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Define: the act itself?
Why people choose one deviant act as opposed to another, for instance some take illegal drugs whereas others are football hooligans.
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Define: immediate origins of social reaction?
What happens when an individual is caught, why are certain labels applied to blacks and different ones to white middle class people (linking with Interactionist theories).
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Define: wider origins of social reaction?
How are laws created and enforced and in whose interests do they work? E.g. why is marijuana illegal whereas cigarettes are not? (both threaten one's health) again links to traditional Marxism?
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Define: outcome of the societal reaction on deviant's further action?
How individuals react to a label that has been successfully applied (links up with labelling theory).
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Define: nature of deviant process as a whole?
The key point being that there can be no simplistic explanation for deviance, one must consider all aspects of social action.
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Crime and Deviance: Applied New Criminology - Youth Subculture.
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Who are the only 2 key theorists for: Crime and Deviance: Applied New Criminology - Youth Subculture?
Phil Cohen ('Subcultural Conflict and Working Class Community' - 1972) and John Clarke ('The Skinheads and the Magical Recovery of Community' - 1975).
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What are the 4 key concepts associated with: Crime and Deviance: Applied New Criminology - Youth Subculture?
Hegemony, Youth, Magic and Symbolic Resistance Through Style.
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How the ruling classes impose their values onto other members of society through insitutions such as the education system and the mass media. Thus why the majority of people accept private medicine and education when they're not likely to benefit.
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Define the key concept: Youth?
Young people who have not bought into capitalism and, therefore, are more likely to challenge the hegemonic values of the ruling class which their parents have adopted.
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Define the key concept: Magic?
The formation of youth subcultures only provided a temporary escape from the problems faced by youth without tackling the real structural source of them - capitalism.
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Define the key concept: Symbolic Resistance Through Style?
Youth selects their clothing, hairstyles and music to represent and express their frustrations symbolically. This resistance is shown in the uniforms of subcultural groups such as punks, mods, ravers or Rastafarians.
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What did functionalist writers such as Albert Cohen and Cloward and Ohlin see subcultures as a means of?
Saw subcultures as a means for young people to help them make the transition from childhood to adulthood.
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What di the functionalist theorists not consider about subcultures being a transition from childhood to adulthood according to Marxists?
Didn't consider that either the styles adopted or the backgrounds of the members of these groups was significant.
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What did the Marxist subcultural school seek to address?
The analytical gaps of functionalists as stated.
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What does the Marxist subcultural school centre around?
Centres around the belief that membership of a subculture is a meaningful attept by young working class people to tackle the inequalities which they face in their day to day lives.
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What should sociologists seek to decode according to Marxists?
Seek to decode this symbolic resistance which will enable them to explain why members of subcultural groups so often engage in deviant activities.
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What is the Rastafarian example of subculture?
A Rastafarian could be seen to be actively resisting the hegemonic values of capitalism and replacing them with an alternative set of beliefs.
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Give examples of the Rastafarian subcultural belief?
Colours of clothing (red, green, gold and black) represent the Ethiopian flag. The dreadlocks reflect the Rastafarian belief that beauty comes from within and the use of marijuana enables them to reach a higher spiritual plain.
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Why is the Rastafarian subcutultural group magical?
Because it fails to tackle the real structural problems which create their unhappiness-racism and the class system.
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Phil Cohen uses an analysis which has similarities with what, when he examined youth subculture in the East End of London during the early 1970s?
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What did Cohen examine?
He examined the immediate context and wider context which underpin youth subculture.
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Define: immediate context?
Redevelopment - the old communities had been undermined because large numbers of cockneys had moved to new towns (e.g. Harlow) and the old-fashioned terraced houses were often replaced by tower blocks. Decline of the docks - EastEnders no longer ...
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What is the finished last reverse side of the card 292?
... worked in the Docklands and the community feeling fell. Decline of the extended family - close family above undermined and also the local community.
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Define: wider context?
Many members of the working class had begun to benefit from the new-found affluence of post-war Britain and had bought into the hegemonic values of the ruling classes whereas, particularly in the East End, poverty and deprivation remained.
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How did John Clarke develop Cohen's concusions?
Decodes the way in which the clothing, music and actions of skinheads are symbolic of their resistance to the breakdown of the traditional East London community.
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Give some examples of skinhead symbolic resistance to the breakdown of the traditional East London community?
Their clothes (DM's, tight jeans, braces and granddad shirts are an exaggeration of what their forefathers would have worn to go to work and haircut (skinhead) is a dramatic stylised representation of the short back n sides of working class men.
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What else does Clarke argue about the skinhead culture?
When style is combined with the actions of the subcultural group such as ****-bashing and their blatant sexist attitudes, Clarke argues that skinheads magically recreate the East End which had disappeared.
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What do the skinheads not do according to Clarke?
They don't tackle the structural problems which had created their frustration in the first place (unemployment, lack of housing). Their actions only serve to perpetuate the class system.
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What does Clarke think that the working classes do due to subcultures?
They fight amongst themselves over race and gender as opposed to uniting to overthrow the real enemy - the capitalist system.
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Crime and Deviance: New Left Realism.
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Who are the key theorists associated with: Crime and Deviance: New Left Realism?
Lea and Young ('What is to be done about Law and Order?' - 1984), Kinsey, Lea and Young ('Losing the Fight Against Crime' - 1986) and Roger Mathews ('Squaring up to Crime' - 1993).
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What are the 2 key concepts associated with: Crime and Deviance: New Left Realism?
Realistic Approaches and Street Crime.
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Define the key concept: Realistic Approaches?
Rather than making excuses for criminals, New Left Realists aimed to produce a socialist alternative to counter the right-wing law and order ideology of heavy-handed policing. Realists argue that communism isn't a solution to crime and deviance.
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Define the key concept: Street Crime?
Criminal acts such as burglary, mugging and **** as opposed to coroporate crime (breach of health and safety laws or fraud).
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What did New Left Realists seek to address?
Address a different weakness of traditional Marxism (to that tackled by New Crimonology), namely its focus upon the seriousness of white collar crime.
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What did New Left Realists contend that the main problem facing society was?
The massive increase in street crime since the Second World War.
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What is much of the work of New Leftism based on?
Victimised studies and the work of Home Office researchers Stevens and Willis.
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What did Home Office researches Steven and Willis argue?
That fear of crime, especially in inner-city areas, was of far greater concern to ordinary people than other structural problems of society.
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Who are Stevens and Willis especially critical of?
Especially critical of Gilroy in his romantic vision of ethnic minorities turning to deviance in some way to re-create a colonial struggle.
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What did Lea and Young also do?
Drew inspiration from earlier theoretical approaches to produce a more sophisticated analysis of deviant behaviour (in a similar way to New Criminology).
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What did Lea and Young develop a model of?
Developed a model which tried to explian why certain individuals become involved in deviant activities.
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What did Lea and Young find?
They founf three main inter-connected factors: relative deprivation; subculture; and marginalisation.
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Define relative deprivation?
This is where a group feels that it is worse off in comparison to other people in society. They don't have the consumber products and lifestyle which everyone else considers normal (as opposed to luxury). This breeds resentment and frustration.
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Relatively deprived people will recognise their shared situation and may form subcultural groups to help them come to terms with it. Links to Marxists and differs from functionalists. There are Goths and Skinheads which conflict with authorities.
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Those who experience relative deprivation often believe that the rest of society doesn't care about plight and feels marginalised. Don't have conventional routes to redress anger and resot to unlawful means such as rioting to get voices heard.
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What did Kinsey Et Al sought to offer what?
Practical ways in which policing methods of Great Britain could be approved in such a way to build public confidence and help the police win the battle against crime.
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What did Kinsey Et Al suggest the police should do?
The police must improve its clear-up rate for criminal activities which would strengthen the deterrent effect.
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What % of burglaries were solved in the Metropolitan Police District in 1983?
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What do Left Realists estimate about the police?
Estimate that up to 90% of all crimes are solved because of information supplied by the general public.
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What do Left Realists arguet hat the breakdown of trust between the police and certain sections of the community (ethnic minorities) led to?
Has eroded the invaluable source and, therefore, it makes their job harder.
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What was the final piece of advice offered to the police by Kinsey Et Al?
The police need to stop relying on heavy handed methods such as random stop and search which further alienates many people against them.
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What effects do Left Realists think that heavy handed policing had on witnesses of the Brixton riots of 1981?
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What did law-abiding citizens come to regard the police as?
The enemy who could not distinguish those who were law abiding citizens from the deviants.
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What did the lack of police distinguishability of criminals and law-abiding citizens lead to?
Led to a mobilisation of bystanders and a violent confrontation between themselves and the police.
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How many inseparable, interlocked elements which enable sociologists to understand fully the socially constructed nature of deviance did Roger Mathews think there were?
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What are the 4 inseparable, interlocked elements which enable sociologists to understand fully the socially constructed nature of deviance?
State, offender, informal control and victim.
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What was the mistake made by previous sociological accounts was?
To isolate one of the 4 factors.
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What is an example of a sociological theory which makes the mistake of isolating one of the 4 factors according to Mathews?
Marxism mainly focused on the state.
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What is Mathews' 4 factors known as?
Square of crime.
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What does Mathews contend about the relative importance of each element?
The relative importance of each element will vary for each type of deviant.
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Crime and Deviance: New Right Realism.
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Who are the three key theorists associated with Crime and Deviance: New Right Realism?
James Wilson ('Thinking About Crime' - 1975), Wilson and Hersteing ('Crime and Human Nature' - 1985) and James Coleman ('Public and Private Schools: The Impact of Communities' - 1987).
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What are the three key concepts associated with Crime and Deviance: New Right Realism?
Rational Calculation, Zero Tolerance Policing and Social Capital.
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Define the key concept: Rational Calculation?
The notion that people weigh up the risks of an action and they consider them to be low then they will go through with it. For example, will I get sacked if I throw a sickie?
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Define the key concept: Zero Tolerance Policing?
Is the idea that the authorities must come down hard on all criminal activities no matter how trivial not just crime - i.e. prosecute as many fare-dodgers as burglars.
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Define the key concept: Social Capital?
Relates to the quality of relationships within a particular family (e.g. presence of a strong male role model) and other social networks or support mechanisms than an individual has access to - presence of such things is an asset to a young person.
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During what time period was radical sociologistical analysis dominant?
Throughout the 1960s and 1970s.
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What did sociological explanations tend to excuse and blame criminality on?
Excuse the perpetrator and blame criminality on an individual's position in the social strucutre or on the actions and intentions of agents of social control.
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What does the above card mean in essence?
Sociologists made excuses for delinquents.
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What was the movement towards New Right Realism an attempt to do?
An attempt not only to restore the balance in favour of the victim but also to make some viable decisions as to how we can reduce levels of crime.
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What did many academics and politicians question in the UK and US?
Many academics and politicians began to question the direction that the US and UK societies were going in as a result of cultural changes in the 1960s (e.g. introduction of the pill and nanny state).
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What did academics and politicians in the US and UK want?
A return to old-fashioned family values where-by indiscipline was dealt with by the patriarch and individuals took responsibility for their own actions. Moreover, let the police get on with policing rather than pointless bureaucratic tasks.
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What was James Wilson's first theme?
His first theme was that many politicians were wrong in their belief that the key to crime reduction was the elimination of poverty.
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What did James Wilson's first theme signall for?
Signalled a rejection of using progressive taxation as a method of wealth re-distribution; instead Wilson claimed that everyone's taxes should be lowered.
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How did James Wilson support his views?
By arguing that only a minority of poor people actually committed crime and, therefore, it was a matter of individual choice.
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What did James Wilson think caused people to commit crime?
The decision to commit crime was based on a rational calculation by offenders: how likely am I to get caught, and, if caught, how serious is the punishment likely to be?
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What did Wilson think that criminals did relation to the rational caluculated choice?
Criminals made this calculation and the risks didn't deter them.
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What did James Wilson come up with relating to criminals?
Some bold and realistic solutions to them.
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What were James Wilson's bold and realisitic solutions to criminals and their decisions?
Build strong communities and zero tolerance policing.
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Define build strong communities?
Tight-knit communities police themselves (informal social control) and drive out any un-desirable elements - drug dealers.
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Define zero tolerance policing?
Treat every offence as a serious offence, no matter how trivial it may seem, e.g. if spitting is illegal then charge anyone who you see spitting and give spitters the maximum sentence.
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What did Wilson and Herstein claim about certain individuals and crime?
Some individuals were born with a pre-disposition towards crime.
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What could happen to some individuals' pre-disposition towards crime?
This could be socialised out of them providing that the child was raised in a stable nuclear family environment with its associated patriarchal discipline.
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How does the above theory link to Durkheim's view of anomie?
Unless an individual has been properly brought up then they will make selfish choices in life (exercise their free will) i.e. sign on and take cash in hand work.
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What does James Coleman argue that there is a correlation between?
There is a correlation between family structure and criminal behaviour.
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What did James Coleman think that children raised in single parent families lack?
Children raised in single parent families lack social capital when compared to their nuclear family counterparts.
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Why does James Coleman think that children raised in single parent families lack social capital?
Due to the absence of strong family relationships, interaction between parents and children and lack of male role models mean that juveniles raised in this environment are inadequately socialised and so do not see that delinquency is wrong.
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Who have Coleman's ideas influenced?
Policy makers. For example the current government has passed legislation so that parents can be held to account for their child's behaviour i.e. parents of persistent truants have been prosecuted and sent to prison.
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Who does Coleman's ideas echo?
Echo those of Murray (family section of the syllabus).
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Crime and Deviance: Applied Right Realism - SCP & ECP.
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Who are the 5 key theorists associated with Crime and Deviance: Applied Right Realism - SCP and ECP?
Ron Clarke, Marcus Felson ('Crimes and Nature' - 2006), Chaiken et al, Kate Painter Surveillance of Public Space ('CCTV, Street Lighting and Crime Prevention' - 1999) and Wilson and Kelling.
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What are the 3 key concepts associated with Crime and Deviance: Applied Right Realism - SCP & ECP?
Situational Crime Prevention (SCP), Displacement and Environmental Crime Prevention (ECP).
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Define the key concept: Situational Crime Prevention (SCP)?
Recognition that some people will always be criminal and therefore society should make it as difficult as possible to get away with it. E.g. using anti-climb paint on the side of buildings to reduce the chance of property being burgled.
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Define the key concept: Displacement?
Switching either location or type of criminal activity in order to overcome SCP methods. E.g. stealing older cars that don't have alarms and immobilisers.
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Define the key concept: Environmental Crime Prevention (ECP)?
If an area begins to visibly deteriorate (e.g. lots of graffiti) then the community begins to lose pride in itself. The informal social controls that help to reduce anti-social behaviour begin to disappear. The way to reduce crime is to restore civic
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Finnish the above card.
... pride and encourage law-abiding citizens to drive out undesirable elements.
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Crime prevention works on the principle of what?
Works on the principle that crime and deviance are natural and inevitable in any society. Which traces back to the functional concept of social solidarity.
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What assumtion does Situational Crime Prevention (SCP) make?
SCP makes the assumption that we make it as unattractive and difficult as possible to undertake a criminal activity in order to keep crime levels low.
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What do advocates of Environmental Crime Prevention (ECP) also argue?
That by having a shared sense of right and wrong the community policis itself and this prevents crime.
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Whose work could have been included under New Right Realism?
ECP work of Wilson and Kelling.
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What did Ron Clarke argue about the undoing of socialisation?
Short term it is impossible to undo the damage of bad socialisation of many adult criminals which may or may have not caused their deviance.
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What did Ron Clarke think that we have to recognise?
We have to recognise that it is some sort of cat and mouse fame where we (society) make it more difficult for them to commit crime - Situational Crime Prevention (SCP).
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What does the above card/point link to?
Rational calculation - am I going to get caught?
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What is the way to reduce crime according to Ron Clarke?
Through the use of CCTV and high visibility policing (surveillance) or by improving security of vulnerable targets e.g. installing car alarms and immobilisers (target hardening).
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What did Marcus Felson give evidence to support?
The work of Clarke into Situational Crime Prevention (SCP).
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What did Marcus Felson study?
How in New York the Bus Station (which had been a hotbed of criminal activity) was re-designed using the insight of SCP.
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What is an example of the re-designing using the insight of SCP?
Reducing bottlenecks where people were crammed together leaving them vulnerable to being pick-pocketed.
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What did the original toilets at bus stations allow?
The original toilets had large sink basins that allowed homeless people to bathe themselves and thereby gave them a reason to congregate at the bus station. Also gay men engaged in cottaging in the same toilets.
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What happened to the re-built public conveniences in New York?
Hand basins were made as small as possible and the cubicle doors had large gaps top and bottom so the attendant could spot gay prostitution or drug dealing.
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What were Chaiken Et Al critical of?
SCP arguing that all that happens is that criminals do not stop being criminal but that SCP just discplaces their deviance.
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How many forms can displacement take according to Chaiken Et Al?
Spatial, Temporal, Target, Functional and Tactical.
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Define Spatial displacement?
Committing the crime in another place not covered by SCP measures.
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Define Temporal displacement?
Do the crime at times when you know there are no security patrols.
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Define Target displacement?
Pick different victims.
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Define Functional displacement?
Switch from one type of crime to another.
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Define Tactical displacement?
Use a disguise to conceal your identity so it does not matter if you are seen on CCTV.
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What did Kat Painter conduct?
Conducted a field experiment in Stoke-on-Trent where a team of sociologists altered the level of street lighting to see if it led to a reduction in crime.
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What did Painter do, before the sociologists changed the street lights?
Painter undertook a victim survey to estimate the level of crime.
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What did Painter and the team of sociologists introduce?
A new form of street light that was considerably brighter in certain areas.
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What did Painter and the team of sociologists do after a year?
After a year, the team returned to the same area and re-surveyed the local residents and found that crime levels reduced by 26%.
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What did Painter also argue from his results?
He argued that there had not been any displacement, as Chaiken Et Al claimed would happen, but rather a diffusion of benefits where crime levels reduced acroos the board.
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What did Painter hypothesise from his results?
That the reason for this was that more people were walking late at night (due to the increased street lighting) and this meant that criminals made a rational choice not to commit crime there as the risk of being seen significantly increased.
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What was the name of the theory developed by Wilsona and Kelling?
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What is the Broken Window theory?
When a neighbourhood starts to look shabby and run-down this will lower-self esteem of residents. The nest step is that they become accepting of vandalism and graffiti and this sends a message to criminals that they can get away with things there.
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What is the solution to the Broken Window theory?
The solution is for the police and the authorities to immediately repair the damage (e.g. a broken window) and this sends a messafe to the criminals that this is a respectable area and they must move on.
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What other theory does Broken Window run alongside?
Zero-tolerance policing methods wherein even the most trivial of crimes are treated seriously and will result in a prosecution. This directly complements Wilson's earlier New Right Realist accounts.
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Crime and Deviance: Applied Realism - Suicide.
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Who is the only key theorist associated with Crime and Deviance: Applied Realism - Suicide?
Steve Taylor ('Persons Under Trains').
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What is the only key concept associated with Crime and Deviance: Applied Realism - Suicide?
Realistic Definition of Suicide.
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Define the key concept: Realistic Definition of Suicide?
Is any deliberate act of self-damage or potential self-damage where the individual cannot be sure of survival.
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What was Steven Taylor's research based on?
His research was based on 32 suspicious deaths which occurred on the London Underground.
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How many of the 32 suspicious deaths which occurred on the London Underground were classified as having been suicides after inquests?
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What did Taylor do differently to other sociologists studying suicide?
Taylor considered the possibility that those who died (by throwing themselves under a tube train) couldn't be ceratin that this act would lead to death - train may stop in time or they may just be injured.
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What did Taylor then derive?
The above definition of suicide which accounted for both suicidal attempts that killed hte victim and attempted suicides that didn't actually lead to death.
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What did Taylor's realistic approach try to reconcile?
Tried to reconcile elements of both Positivist and subjective sociology.
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Who does Taylor agree with relating to suicide?
Agrees with Durkheim that there are patterns and underlying structures that can explain suicide.
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What does Taylor think was wrong with Durkheim's views on suicide?
Durkheim was wrong to use official statisitics as a vehicle to uncover the cause of suicide.
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What does Taylor advocate as an approach to uncovering the cause of suicide?
Advocated a case study approach which has strong overlaps with the subjective methodological approaches of Douglas and Atkinson.
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What else does Taylor think similarly to Durkheim relating to suicide?
Suicide is caused by a combination of two types of opposites: ectopic (unhappiness caused by you) or symphysic (angst caused by others) versus certainty (a positive action) or uncertainty (a negative decision).
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Define Taylor's Ectopic/Uncertain Thanatian Suicide?
A feeling of self doubt and uncertainty about oneself may result in a person deciding to embark upon suicidal acts. The exhiliration gained from cheating death may even become addicitve. Novelist Graham Greene famed for passion for Russian Roulette.
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Define Taylor's Uncertain/Symphysic Appeal Suicide?
A classic cry for help when the victim feels uncertain about the attitudes of others. They want to be discovered and, thereby, force others to change their behaviour. Marilyn Monroe rang her doctor when depressed but not when she committed suicide.
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Define Taylor's Symphysic/Certainty Sacrifice Suicide?
When an individual takes their own life as a means of punishing another party who has caused them pain. A 22 year old man committed suicide because his wife was having an affair with his brother and wanted a divorce.
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Define Taylor's Ectopic/Certainty Submissive Suicide?
When a person decides that their life is no longer worth living and is certain that they want to die. Terminally ill patients and old people who give up the ghost when a long term spouse is suddenly taken away from them.
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Other cards in this set
Who are the three key theorists associated with Crime and Deviance: Functionalist Theories?
Emile Durkheim, Robert Merton and Travis Hirschi.
What was the study conducted by Emile Durkheim known as?
What was the study conducted by Robert Merton known as?
What was the study conducted by Travis Hirschi known as?