SOCIOLGY UNIT 2- 1A QUESTIONS

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Social Solidarity
This is a sense of community and togetherness.
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Value Consensus
An agreement in society about which values are important (a shared culture). According to functionalists, it integrates individuals into society by giving them a sense of solidarity with others and enables them to agree on goals
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Meritocracy
An educational or social system has equal opportunities. Individuals are rewarded and given status are based on their own efforts, rather than ascribed, whether this is by their gender, class or ethnic group
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Capitalism
This is a perspective that Marxists see. This is a conflict perspective based on the ideas of Karl Marx (1818-1883). Society is seen as being divided into two opposed classes, one which exploits the labour of the other.
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Hidden Curriculum
This is when things are taught without formally being taught. They are often taught through the everyday workings of the school, such as attitudes of obedience, conformity and competitiveness
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Anti-School Subculture
Anti-school subcultures are negative about school. They reject the school rules and don't conform at school. They get status from their friends and by not conforming
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Social Policy
This is the actions, plans and programmes of the government bodies and agencies that aim to deal with a problem or achieve a goal. The policies are often based on laws that provide framework within which these agencies operate
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Marketisation
This is the policy of introducing market forces of supply and demand into areas run by the state. For example education and The National Health Service.
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Tri-Partite Act
This is a system of secondary education created by the 1944 Education Act, based on three different types of school.
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11+
This was an exam to determined what school a pupil went to. It was based on attitudes and abilities. Middle-Class pupils went to grammar schoools. Working-class went to secondary moderns.
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Grammar School
The schools which under the tripartite system, admitted those whose eleven plus indicated academic ability.
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Secondary Modern
Designed for the majority of pupils - those who do not achieve scores in the top 25% of the eleven plus examination
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Comprehension
Type of school where pupils of all abilities and background attend instead of attending different schools
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1988 Education Reform Act
This introduced market principles to education to create competition between schools to raise standards
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Curriculum 2000
Curriculum 2000 was a reform of the A Level examination in the United Kingdom
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New Vocationalism
This is the idea that education should be about meeting the needs of the economy, equipping the young people with the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values needed to prepare them for work
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Cultural Deprivation
Working-Class and black children are not socialised. Therefore they lack the 'right' culture for education success
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Material Deprivation
This is a lack of basic necessities. This includes housing, clothing or the money to buy these things. Relating to education this is the reason why working-class children under-achieve, because they have not got the money to buy these necessities
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Cultural Capital
The knowledge, attitudes, values, language, tastes and abilities the middle-class transmit to their children. Bourdieu claims that culture capital is the reason why middle-class children do so well in the education system
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Elaborated Code
The middle-class often use this. It consists of complex sentences and able to describe abstract ideas. This gives the middle-class children an advantage
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Restricted Code
Mainly used by the working-class. Consist of short, grammatically simple sentences and limited vocabulary.
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Labelling
The process of attaching a name/meaning to an individual or group. Labels are often stereotypes that defines all members of a group the same
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Self-fulfilling prophecy
Where a prediction is made about a person or a group and it becomes true because the person or group live up to it/believe in it
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Institutionalised Racism
Racism that is built into the normal day-to-day practices of an organisation.
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Ethnocentric Curriculum
Some sociologists have argued that the National Curriculum is ethnocentric, which means that it teaches British values and culture as being dominant over others (Coard, Gillborn).
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Swann Report
"This was a government report advocating a multicultural education system for all schools, regardless of institutions, location, age-range or ethnicity for staff/pupils
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Peer Pressure
Influence from members of one's peer group.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

An agreement in society about which values are important (a shared culture). According to functionalists, it integrates individuals into society by giving them a sense of solidarity with others and enables them to agree on goals

Back

Value Consensus

Card 3

Front

An educational or social system has equal opportunities. Individuals are rewarded and given status are based on their own efforts, rather than ascribed, whether this is by their gender, class or ethnic group

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

This is a perspective that Marxists see. This is a conflict perspective based on the ideas of Karl Marx (1818-1883). Society is seen as being divided into two opposed classes, one which exploits the labour of the other.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

This is when things are taught without formally being taught. They are often taught through the everyday workings of the school, such as attitudes of obedience, conformity and competitiveness

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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