Social Key Studies

3 types of conformity. Compliance, Identification, Internalisation
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Deutsch and Gerard
Two process model of conformity. Need to be liked and need to be right
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Hotel guests shown signs '75% of our guests reuse towels'. Towel use decreased by 25%
3 of 40
Likenbach and Perkins
Teens who were exposed to messages that the MAJORITY of their peers didn't smoke were less likely to take it up
4 of 40
Wittenbrink and Henley
Ppts exposed to negative information about African Americans later reported negative beliefs about a black individual
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Students given an easy or difficult maths problem. More likely to conform if question was difficult and if they had low self-efficacy in maths
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Perrin and Spencer
Used science students for a replication of Asch. Less likely to conform as they had high self-efficacy. 1/396
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123 ppts viewed lines of different lengths. Comparison. Group contained confederates, ppts answered 2nd to last. Critical trials 12/18. Conformity = 33%. 50% conformed on 1/2 trials, 5% on every trial. 25% never conformed
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Studies have only used a limited range of majority, we do not know the effect of group size above 9
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Mori and Arai
Glasses changed how the lines looked. No one had to lie. No great change in conformity levels to Asch. (Convincing confederates)
10 of 40
Cultural differences. Average = 31.2%. Individualist = 25%. Collectivist = 37%
11 of 40
24 mentally stable male participants randomly allocated to either guard or prison role. Guards - given clubs, uniforms, reflective sunglasses. Prisoners - arrested at home, deloused, given prison uniform, ID numbers. Zimbardo = Superintendent. 6 days
12 of 40
Asked students unaware for the SPE. Majoirty guessed correctly the results/purpose.
13 of 40
Reicher and Haslam
Replicated SPE. 15 males, matched on key variables. Random Allocation. 8 days. Contradicted SPE
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Abu Ghraib
Iraq Military prison. Torture and abuse. Lack of training, unrelenting boredom and no accountability to higher authority -> abuse
15 of 40
Milgram Procedure
40 male ppts. Ppts = teacher. Confederate = Learner. As learner made mistakes, electric shock given by ppts, increasing in 15V increments. Prods given by experimenter if they ppt refused 'the experiment requires that you continue' etc.
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Milgram Results
180V complained of weak heart. 300V screamed and banged. 315V refused to continue. All ppts went to at least 300V. 65% went to 450V. 400V = FATAL
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Orne and Holland
Suggest that the research lacked internal validity and that the ppts were not fooled by the set up
18 of 40
Believers vs. doubters. Believers gave lower shocks
19 of 40
Hoflings nurses
Nurses instructed by unknown doctor over the phone to give a patient 20mg of an unknown drug. Breaking two rules. 21/22 obeyed 'Dr Smith'.
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Found level of obedience almost identical to that of Milgram's 46 years later
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Milgram Variations
Proximity - same room, obedience = 40%. Location - run down office = 47.5%. No uniform = 20%.
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3 male researchers gave a direct order to pick up litter in NY. Dressed as either guard, milkman or civilian. Obedience = G 80%. M 40%. C 40%/
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Blass and Schmitt
Students shown a video of Milgram, said experimenter was responsible
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Kilman and Mann
Cultural differences. Germany = 85%. Australia = 16%
25 of 40
In human-error caused plane crashes, co-pilot too reliant on pilot, didn't question them.
26 of 40
2000 middle class white Americans. Investiated unconscious attitudes to other racial groups. F scale measured relationship between a personality type and prejudiced views. Those who scored highly on F scale identified with strong people.
27 of 40
Milgram and Elms
Follow up of original study. Selected 20 obedient and 20 disobedient ppts. Completed F scale. Asked open qs about relationship with parents and attitudes to experimenter and learner. Found higher levels of authoritarianism among obedient ppts.
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Middendorp and Meloen
Less educated people are more authoritarian than well educated
29 of 40
Right-Wing Authoritarianism. Conventionalism, authoritarian aggression, authoritarian submission
30 of 40
Fake game show. Contestants inflicted electric shocks to other contestants. World Value Survey Questionnaire, which established their political views. Left wing = lower shocks
31 of 40
Asch variation
Conformity dropped to 5.5% when one confederate gave a different answer
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Allen and Levine
Asch type study. Invalid support -thick glasses. Valid support - normal vision. Both reduced conformity.
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Milgram Variation
Obedience dropped to 10% when ppts were joined by a disobedient confederate
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Ppts had to produce a smear campaign for an oil company. 29/33 groups rebelled. Ppts were in a group so had social support
35 of 40
Repeated Milgram. Measured whether ppts were internals of externals. 37% internals disobeyed. 23% externals disobeyed.
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MA. Positive correlation between LOC and Conformity
37 of 40
4ppts, 2 confederates. 36 slides, all blue. 2 conditions. 1 - consistent minority. 2 - Inconsistent (2/3). 1/3 agreed with the consistent minority at least once.
38 of 40
Jury situation. Compensation for a ski accident. Confederate put forward alternative amount. Only influenced group if consistent and compromised later on
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Montana Campaign
20% young people drunk drove. 92% thought their peers did. Campaign '4/5 don't drink drive'. Levels reduced to 13%
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Deutsch and Gerard


Two process model of conformity. Need to be liked and need to be right

Card 3




Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Likenbach and Perkins


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Wittenbrink and Henley


Preview of the front of card 5
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