social class and crime

According to official statistics, who is more likely to commit a crime?
The working class rather than the higher classes
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Explanations of why the W/C appears to offend more than higher classes
Functionalism, strain theory, subcultural theories, labeling theories
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What type of theory is functionalism and what do they accept?
consensus, Official crime stats
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What do they believe W/C crime is a product of?
inadequate socialization into shared value consensus
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What do they believe different groups and classes develop?
Their own subcultures
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What does Strain theory (Merton consensus) argue the cause of W/C crime is?
Blocked opportunities
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What do strain theories mean when they say W/C is more likely to be innovators?
use illegitimate means (utilitarian crime) to achieve societies goals
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What type of theory are subcultural theories and what do they accept?
consensus theory and accept official crime stats
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Why do subcultural theories believe W/C join deviant subcultures?
because they are experiencing status frustration with their inability to achieve mainstream goals
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Why does labeling theory reject official crime stats?
say they are socially constructed
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Why do they believe crime stats are socially constructed?
do not give a valid picture of crime
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Why do Labelling theorists believe the W/C are over-reported
because they fit the typification
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Crimes of the powerful
Marxists claim that all classes commit a crime but, the law is selectively enforced so that higher class and corporate offenders are less likely to be prosecuted
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White-collar and corporate crime
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Who defines white-collar crime as a crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation?
Sutherland (1949)
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What two types of white-collar crime does he distinguish between?
Occupational crime and corporate crime
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What's an occupational crime?
committed by employees for their own personal gain, often against the organisation they work for
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Provide an example of occupational crime
Stealing form the company or its customers p-fraud
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What Corporate Crime?
Committed by employees for their organization in pursuit of its goals
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Provide an example,
deliberately mis-selling products to increase a companies profits
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However, what do many crimes committed by the powerful not actually do?
break the law
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The scale and types of corporate crimes
likely 4 or 6 marker
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What do corporate crimes and white collar crimes do far more damage then?
street crimes
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Who claims that corporate crome has enormous costs, including physical, environmental, and economic?
Tombs (2013)
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What else does he conclude about corporate crime?
That it is widespread, routine and pervasive
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types of Corporate crimes (find cake eat every smit)
Financial crimes, crimes against consumers, crimes against employees, crimes against the environment, state-corporate crime
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Name 4 examples of Financial crimes
tax evasion, bribery, money laundering, and illegal accounting,
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name 2 crimes against consumers
false labeling and selling unfit goods
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Name crimes against employees
sexual and racial discrimination, violations of wage laws and breaking health and safety laws
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Name 3 examples of crimes against the environment
ilegal pollution of air, water and land
Toxic waste dumping
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Name an example of state-corporate crime
harms committed when government institutions and businesses cooperate to pursue goals
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The Abuse of trust
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Give an example of how we trust and respect high-status professionals
we entrust our finances, health, and security
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However, what does this power often give them the opportunity?
to abuse our trust
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For example, what do accountants and lawyers get employed by?
Criminal organisations to launder money into legitimate businesses
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Name 3 other ways high-status professionals can act corruptly
inflating fees, committing forgery, illegal diverting client's money
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Thus, what does this type of crime violate?
the trust that society places in professionals
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What does Sutherland argue about white-collar crime and the abuse of trust?
it makes it a greater threat than street crime because it promises distrust in the key institutions and fabric of society
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The invisibility of Corporate crime
Sometimes corporate crime isn't seen as a 'real crime'
(likely 4 or 6 marker)
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Name the 5 ways of invisibility of corporate crime
The Media, lack of political, Corporate crime often complex, de labeling, under-reporting
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How do the media reinforce the stereotypes that crime is a w/c phenomenon?
Gives limited coverage to corporate crime
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What do the media describe corporate crime as rather than a real crime?
technical infringement
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Give an example
defrauding consumers becomes 'miss-selling'
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What does it mean by a lack of political will?
No will to tackle corporate crimes
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What does political usually become tough on but ignore?
Street crimes, corporate crimes
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Why are corporate crimes being complex make them invisible?
law enforcers are under-resourced and lack of technical expertise to investigate effectively
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Why are corporate crimes filtered out of the process of criminalization when de-labeled?
The offenses are often described as civil and receive penalties or fines rather than jail
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Why is this?
No seen as seroius
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Why is their under-reporting?
victims don't often know they have been victimised
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What are the vitims of cirme usually then jsut one person?
society as a whole or the eniroment
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even if victims are aware why may they report the offense?
feel powerful against a powerful organisation
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However, since what event have activists made corporate crime more visable?
The financial crisis of 2008
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What else has made us more aware of corporate crimes than ever before?
journalists, whistleblowers and the media
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Explanations of corporate crime
Strain theory, labeling theory , differential association, Marxism
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Starin theory
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Describe by what Merton believes by innovators
Strain from the inability to achieve societies goals by legitimate means so some may turn to illegitimate or illegal means to achieve these goals
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Who argues that if a company cannot achieve it's goal of maximising profits by legitimate means it may turn to illegal
Box (1983)
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Thus, what periods are companies are tempted to break the law
periods when profitability becomes difficult
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What did Clinard and Yeagar (1980) find ?
companies law violations increased when their profitability declined
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However, what do strain theories overpredict?
the number of crime businesses commit
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Why is it unrealistic to assume all businesses offend?
building a good reputation can lead to increased profits
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Differential association
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What does Matza (1957) argue?
people deviate easily if they produce justifications
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Give an example of a justification (great for a corporate crime)
' i was carrying out orders from above
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Who sees crime as a behavior learned from others?
Sutherland (1949)
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What does he mean by this?
the more we associate with people who have a criminal attitude, the more likely we are to become deviant ourselves
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Thus, what can happen in a company?
a deviant subculture where people justify committing a crime
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What is it known as when a subculture justifies its crimes?
'techniques of neutralisation'
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However, what does this theory fail to recognize about law-abiding?
Law-abiding may be more profitable than law-breaking
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Give examples
winning contracts and public support helps businesses
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Labeling theory
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What do they believe counts as a crime?
if it has been labeled as such
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Whonoften has the power to avoid labels?
Businesses and professionals
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How would they do this?
hire expensive lawyers and accountants to helo them avoid being labeled as criminals and have serious charges reduced
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What else prevets the labels of corporate crime?
the reluctance and inability of enforcement agencies to investigate effectively and prosecute
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However, why do most people not need to wait for a label?
Because they are fully aware of the acts that break the law
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Why do Marxists claim corporate crime is inevitable?
it's part of the normal
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Why is this?
It capitalisms goals to maximize profits
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What ideology does capitalism spread about the different types of crime?
corporate crime os less widespread or harmful then W/C crime
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What does the R/C also make sure in terms of laws?
they protect their interests and it is selectively enforced
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Why is it easier to commit corporate crimes in developing countries ?
the law and effective controls are lacking
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give examples
low wages, unsafe products, pollute the environment, dangerous conditions for employees and bribe officials
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However, what can Marxists not explain about crime in what type of state orgainsations?
Non-profit making state organisations like police, army, or civil service
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Explanations of why the W/C appears to offend more than higher classes


Functionalism, strain theory, subcultural theories, labeling theories

Card 3


What type of theory is functionalism and what do they accept?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What do they believe W/C crime is a product of?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What do they believe different groups and classes develop?


Preview of the front of card 5
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