Social and Cognitive Psychology

  • Created by: debbieoxt
  • Created on: 11-05-18 12:12
What is the definition of Social Psychology?
Social psychology looks at how people interact with one another and how they behave in groups. It focuses on an individual, but more on how an individual fits in with others within society than on the individual themselves.
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What is the definition of obedience?
Following a direct order given from someone in authority, even if it goes against your moral code.
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What was the aim of Milgram's original study?
To see if ordinary people would follow orders to give an innocent stranger a potentially harmful electric shock.
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What was the procedure of Milgram's original study?
Ad in newspaper, 40 male participants, rigged draw lot, participant was teacher, confederate was learner, 45 volt shock given to ppt, ppt tests learner on word pairs, experimenter gives ppt prods to give shocks when incorrect answer was given, 15v
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What was the results of Milgram's original study?
100% obeyed up to 300 volts, 65% obeyed until the end (450 volts).
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What was the conclusion of Milgram's original study?
Social setting was a powerful determinant of behaviour as an ordinary person would obey orders from an authoritu to an exterme extent, even when they were very uncomfortable about doing so.
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Generalisability of Milgram's research.
Lacks population validity as the original sample was all male and all American. Cannot be genaralised to other cultures or females. However, in a variation study, he used females.
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Reliability of Milgram's research.
Reliable because it can be easily replicated. This is because the pricedure was highly standardised and well controlled. This suggests that the research is highly credible in terms of being scientific.
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Application of Milgram's research.
It demonstrates how obedience to authority works, which can be used to explain real-life atrocities such as the Abu Ghraib scandal.
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Validity of Milgram's research.
Good internal validity as he used a number of controls and standardised procedures. By using these controls to minimise extraneous variables, it allows a cause and effect link to be established. Task was artificial so his study lacks mundane realism.
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Ethics of Milgram's research.
Participants were deceived, there was lack of informed consent, lack of the right to withdraw and a failure to protect participants from harm.
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Variation study #7 summary.
Testing the effect of proximity of the authoritive figure on obedience. After giving initial instructions to the teacher face to face, the experimenter left the room and gave instructions over the phone. Obedience dropped to 22.5%.
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Variation study #10 summary.
Testing legitimacy of the setting. Relocated to a rundown office building. Same laboratory procedures were followed. Obedience dropped to 48%. Less respectable context redices the legitimacy of the study and status of the authority figure.
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Variation study #13 summary.
2nd confederate (ordinary man) suggests increasing the shocks one at a time by 15v as the learner makes a mistake. Real participant sees this an an instruction from an ordinary man. Obeidence dropped to 20% (4/20).
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What is gradual commitment?
Committing oneself to minor requests, making it difficult to refuse escalating requests.
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What are the situational factors affecting obedience?
Gradual commitment, proximity, legitimacy and responsibility.
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Who devised the F-scale?
Adorno et al. (1950)
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What are the characteristics of an authoritarian personality?
Hostile to those who are of inferior status, but obedient of people with high status. Fairly rigid in their opinions and beliefs. Conventional, upholding traditional values. Typically respect and submissive to authority but harsh to 'subordinates'.
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Why do people develop the authoritarian personality?
It is the result of harsh, punishing and disciplinarian upbringing where little affection was shown. These experiences create resentment and latent hostility towards parents which is displaced onto minority groups and/or projected onto these groups.
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Research evidence for authoritarian personality.
Milgram and Elms (1966) compared the F-scale scores for 20 obedient and 20 defiant participants involved in his experiments. They found that the obedience participant had a higher F-scale score, indicating an authoritarian personality type.
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Research evidence for authoritarian personality.
Dambrun and Vatine (2010) conducted a replication of Milgram's experiment using a computer simulation and also found that authoritarianism was linked to obedience. Those with higher authoritarian scores were less likely to withdraw from the study.
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What did Burger find out about people who scored high on empathy?
They were more likely to protest against giving electric shocks, this did not translate into lower levels of obedience.
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What is locus of control?
Locus of control refers to the sense of control people have over successes, failures and events in their lives.
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What did Rotter (1966) claim about locus of control?
Rotter claimed people could be categorised as having an internal or external locus of control.
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What is external locus of control?
People with an external locus of control attribute the cause of eents in their life to controls outside themseles. Externals tend to feel they have less control over what happens to them. They perceive their behaviour as being caused by luck/fate.
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What is internal locus of control?
People with an internal locus of control attribute the cause of events in their life to their own control. They take responsibility for their actions and rely less on other's opinions. They are better able to resist coercion.
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Obedient people have which type of locus of control?
External locus of control.
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Research evidence of locus and control.
Elms and Milgram investgated the background of a sample of the disobedient participants in Milgram's studies and found that they scored higher on a social responsibility scale and had a high internal locus of control.
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What did Sheridan and King (1972) find?
54% of males and 100% of females delivered the maximum shock to a puppy.
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What did Kilham and Mann (1974) find?
Obedience of females was 16% and 40% for males.
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Does gender affect obedience?
In conclusion, there is very little evidence of gender differences in obedience levels, despite traditional beliefs that females may be more complaint.
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Card 2

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What is the definition of obedience?

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Following a direct order given from someone in authority, even if it goes against your moral code.

Card 3

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What was the aim of Milgram's original study?

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Card 4

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What was the procedure of Milgram's original study?

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Card 5

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What was the results of Milgram's original study?

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