Smoking-Related Disease & Cardiovascular Disease (2.2.2)

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What is nicotine?
The chemical in cigarette smoke which causes addiction.
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What are the main affects of nicotine?
Causes release of adrenaline- increases heart rate & constriction of arterioles. It increases blood pressure- causes damage to lining of blood vessels. Also causes platelets in blood to be more sticky. Blood clots form where they shouldn't-thrombosis
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Why is nicotine addictive?
It mimics neurotransmitters in the brain and nervous system, making person feel more alert.
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What does carbon monoxide do?
Enters RBC, combines with haemoglobin forming oxyhaemoglobin. Reduces oxygen capacity of blood. Lower oxygen conc. in blood detected by brain- starts increased heart rate, get oxygen to body quickly- high blood pressure. CO damages lining of arteries
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What are the main cardiovascular diseases caused by smoking?
Atherosclerosis. Coronary heart disease. Thrombosis. Stroke.
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What is the main effect of atherosclerosis?
To narrow the lumen, increasing the blood pressure further.
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What are atheromas?
Fatty deposits under the endothelium- they greatly restrict blood flow.
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What is athersclerosis?
The damage to the arteries from CO is repaired by phagocytic WBC, which encourage the growth of smooth muscle & deposition of fatty substances (atheromas). The process is atherosclerosis.
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What is arteriosclerosis?
The hardening of the artery caused by the deposition of minerals like calcium.
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What does arteriosclerosis do?
Makes the artery less flexible- it can't stretch and recoil as normal. This increases blood pressure even further.
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What are the coronary arteries?
The arteries that supply the heart muscle. They branch from the aorta and carry blood under high pressure.
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How does coronary heart disease occur?
When the lumen of a coronary artery is narrowed, this reduces blood flow to the heart muscle, which then receives less oxygen. This leads to CHD.
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What are the 3 main outcomes of CHD?
Angina, myocardial infarction (heart attack), heart failure.
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What is angina?
When there are small blocks/plaques in coronary arteries. May only be noticed when doing increased activity. Not enough blood can get to the heart. Pain in chest and down left arm.
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What is a myocardial infarction?
Death of part of the heart muscle due to a complete block in a coronary artery. The cells get no oxygen, die and cause severe chest pain.
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What is heart failure?
When the heart stops completely. This may be due to several coronary arteries being blocked, or just one big one. Heart can't continue beating and death will result.
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What are the signs of CHD?
Tired, no energy- less oxygen to respiring cells due to restricted blood cells. General chest pain- worsens with exercise. Unable to exercise- not enough blood can flow to heart to allow it to beat faster for increased activity.
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What is a stroke?
Death of part of the brain tissue due to reduced blood flow to part of the brain.
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Give 3 symptoms of a stroke.
Sudden severe headache. Numbness in one side of the body. Difficulty speaking. Dizziness.
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What is a stroke often due to?
Burst artery in the brain. Thrombosis.
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What is thrombosis caused by?
Blood flowing past an atheroma can't flow smoothly. This increases chance of clot. Chances are also increased by nicotine making platelets stickier. Resulting clot is a thrombus, which may totally block the artery.
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What is an embolism?
When a clot has broken free and travels in the blood until it gets stuck in a narrower artery.
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Why is CHD less common in LEDCs?
Less saturated fat in diet. More active lifestyles. Often less availability of cigarettes.
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Card 2

Front

What are the main affects of nicotine?

Back

Causes release of adrenaline- increases heart rate & constriction of arterioles. It increases blood pressure- causes damage to lining of blood vessels. Also causes platelets in blood to be more sticky. Blood clots form where they shouldn't-thrombosis

Card 3

Front

Why is nicotine addictive?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does carbon monoxide do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the main cardiovascular diseases caused by smoking?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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