simons and chabris

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what is inattentional bindness?
When attention is focused on an object or task, other visual stimuli are not processed.
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what was the background research?
Neisser (1979) created a task where participants had to monitor basketball passes of either the white- or black- shirt team, which were videoed separately and superimposed over each other.
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what did neisser find?
They found that only 48% noticed the unexpected event of a woman holding an umbrella, which was superimposed over the other two videos. When they did not have to monitor passes, all noticed the unexpected event.
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what was the aim?
To investigate whether inattentional blindness for unexpected objects occurs in dynamic scenes, under controlled conditions.
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sampling method/ charactristics?
A self-selected sample of 228 majority Harvard undergraduate students. 36 participants’ data was discarded, but the remaining participants were distributed evenly across conditions.
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how was controlled observation used?
12 participants watched an opaque video showing where the unexpected event lasted longer- 9secs- and was more salient- the gorilla stopped in the centre of the scene and thumped its chest.
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what was the method?
Lab experiment using an independent measures design
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what was included in the 16 indivisual conditions? (unexpected event?
2 unexpected event conditions (umbrella woman, gorilla woman)
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what were the cognative load conditions?
x 2 cognitive load conditions (Hard: count the bounce and aerial passes separately; Easy: count total passes
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what were the shirt colour conditions?
x 2 Shirt colour conditions (monitor passes of black-shirt team, or white-shirt team)
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what were the two transparency conditions?
2 transparency of video conditions (Opaque video: live filming of the white and black teams and unexpected event occurring at the same time;
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definition transparent video?
same as superimposed in that black, white team, and unexpected event are filmed separately, made transparent, and digitally superimposed over each other).
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what were the materials used?
2 transparent and 2 opaque, 75sec videotapes were produced of a white-shirted and black-shirted team of 3 players, bounce- and aerial-passing basketballs.
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materials used in all viedos?
n all videos, after 44-48 seconds, an unexpected event would occur, lasting 5secs (tall woman with umbrella or shorter woman in gorilla costume)
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what was the procedure?
Participants were tested individually and gave informed consent in advance.
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part 1 procedure?
Participants told they would be watching the basketball video and to count the number of passes (Easy condition) or number of bounce and aerial passes separately (Hard condition) of the black or white team
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procedure part 2?
After viewing the video, participants were immediately asked to write down their counts.
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Card 2

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what was the background research?

Back

Neisser (1979) created a task where participants had to monitor basketball passes of either the white- or black- shirt team, which were videoed separately and superimposed over each other.

Card 3

Front

what did neisser find?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what was the aim?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

sampling method/ charactristics?

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