Sex differences in parental investment AO2

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Evidence to show men are less biologically prepared to invest comes from?
Geher et al. (2007)
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What did the Geher et al study involve?
Asked non-parent undergrads to complete a parental investment perception scale and a series of parenting-related scenarios.
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Results from Geher et al?
They found that there were no sex differences in terms of self report responses but they were significant differences in ANS arousal with the parenting scenarios.
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What were the sex differences in terms of ANS arousal in Geher et al's study?
The heart rate of male participants significantly increased when they were confronted with scenarios that emphasised the costs of parenting.
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What can we conclude from Geher et al?
There is empirical evidence to show that men are less biologically prepared to invest in children and therefore, there is a reluctance to deal with the issues of parenting.
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Who provides evidence supporting the idea of sexual jealousy?
Buss
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What did Buss find?
Buss found that men are more concerned about sexual infidelity and women are more concerned about emotional infidelity.
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What is the issue with Buss' study?
How do we operationalise "emotional infidelity"? It could constitute different things for different women. Therefore, it is difficult to measure and thus, Buss' results could lack external validity.
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Who provides evidence against Buss?
Harris
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What did Harris find?
That men will respond to any sexual imagery with increased arousal and thus, sexual jealousy may not be an adaptive response to avoid cuckoldry.
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Who provides evidence to show women do make a greater investment?
Daly and Wilson
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Explain Daly and WIlsons findings.
Found that women may try to offset their greater investment by cuckolding their partners in order to gain additional support and better quality genes.
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What are the risks of cuckoldry for women?
Possible violence and abandoment
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How do Daly and Wilson show that women are prepared to risk more?
Women risk everything to ensure offspring are protected and are genetically the best.
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Explain why parental investment theory is reductionist
Rowe stated that such evolutionary theories severely neglected other factors. They also reduce the complext=iy of human behaviour in PI down to the idea that such differences simply evolved over time.
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What other factors are neglected by Parental investment theory?
Cognitive and Behavioural factors. E.g. Belsky found that childhood experiences correlated with the degree to which men invested in the care and upbringing of their offspring
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Why is Parental investment theory also deterministic?
In the way it claims that all men will invest less in their offspring due to the fact they are male.
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Is is true that all men don't invest?
No, there is evidence that males do invest and they will in fact pass up reproductive opportunities to invest in individual offspring. Males also provide resources (food) and help family to live in healthy conditions.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Asked non-parent undergrads to complete a parental investment perception scale and a series of parenting-related scenarios.

Back

What did the Geher et al study involve?

Card 3

Front

They found that there were no sex differences in terms of self report responses but they were significant differences in ANS arousal with the parenting scenarios.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The heart rate of male participants significantly increased when they were confronted with scenarios that emphasised the costs of parenting.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

There is empirical evidence to show that men are less biologically prepared to invest in children and therefore, there is a reluctance to deal with the issues of parenting.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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