Relationships - Summaries

This is a powerpoint for relationships which basically has essay plans for every single topic in a condensed, more rememberable way. The points can be quite brief in some places because for some studies I only needed to know a couple of words to have the whole study come flooding back so you may have to grab your textbook and look a few of them up to make sure you understand them all.

Parental investment was the topic that came up in my exam and I would have used those exact points listed on those powerpoint slides :)

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Reward/Need Satisfaction Theory (Byrne and Clore)
AO Explanation
AO1 Seek rewarding, avoid punishing. Rewards reflect unmet needs. Mutual
Theory attraction ­ meet each other's.
AO1 Operant ­ repeat behaviour that leads to desirable outcome/positive
Conditioning feelings. Individual offers direct reinforcement. Classical ­ meet in positive
mood, like them more. Neutral stimulus valued, associated with event.
AO2 Cate et al. ­ reward level superior in determining satisfaction.
Reward Level
AO2 Aron et al. ­ high love means elevated activity in subcortical reward
Physiological regions.
AO2 Hays ­ giving reinforcement is satisfying too.
AO2 Lott ­ other cultures, women focus on others' needs.
Beta bias…read more

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Similarity Theory (Byrne et al.)
AO Explanation
AO1 Attracted to similar characteristics/traits. Sort pool of potential partners for
Theory dissimilarity.
AO1 Berschied and Reis ­ more likely attracted to similar personality traits.
Personality Attitude alignment protects relationship.
and Attitude
AO2 Condon and Crano ­ similarity lessens chance of rejection, and sharing
Rejection attitudes is rewarding.
AO2 Yoshida ­ economic level, physical condition. Even body fat (Speakman et
Other Factors al.)
AO2 Rosenbaum ­ dissimilarities mean become less attracted.
AO2 Singh and Tan (Singapore) ­ first attracted by similarity but became less
Universal attracted by dissimilarities. `Dissimilarity-Repulsion' isn't culturally biased.…read more

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Social Exchange Theory (Thibaut and Kelley)
AO Explanation
AO1 Social behaviour ­ series of exchanges to maximise rewards, minimise
Profit/Loss costs for `profit'. Rewards - costs = profit/loss.
AO1 Comparison level (past relationships/general expectations). Comparison
Comparison level for alternatives (rewards of another partner - costs of ending current
Level relationship).
AO2 Gottman and Levenson ­ successful ­ more positive exchanges. Negative
Exchanges ­ equal/less.
AO2 Rusbult and Martz ­ explains abusive relationships where investment is
Abusive high and alternatives are low.
AO2 Other factors (media, emotions). Breaking down into simple profit/loss
Reductionist understanding.
AO2 Collectivist cultures are less mobile. May not apply as collectivists are
Beta bias concerned with things other than personal profit.…read more

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Equity Theory (Walster et al.)
AO Explanation
AO1 Strive for fairness, distressed at unfairness.
AO1 Not necessarily equality. Inputs and outputs. Changing the amount put in,
Inputs/ demand out, perceptions.
AO2 Stafford and Canary ­ Relationship Maintenance Strategies Measure.
RMSM Satisfaction highest if equity perceived.
AO2 Jacobsen et al. ­ Integrated Behavioural Couples Therapy. 2/3 couples
IBCT reported quality improvements (Christensen et al.)
AO2 Clark and Mills ­ more relevant to exchange relationships. Lovers
Exchange governed more by desire to respond to needs.
AO2 Steil and Weltman ­ husbands earn more ­ career more important. Wife
Beta Bias earns more ­ neither more important. Beta bias ­ women downplay
contribution.…read more

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Reasons for Breakdown (Duck)
AO Explanation
AO1 Lack social skills ­ unrewarding interactions. Lack stimulation ­ boredom
Skills/ often quoted.
AO2 Boekhout et al. ­ undergrads rated reasons for infidelity.
Extra-Marital Sexual reasons (sexual excitement) used by men. Emotional (lack of
Affairs control) from women. Due to lack of skills/stimulation.
AO2 Men and women give different reasons ­ women stress incompatibility,
Beta Bias men affected by `sexual withholding' (Brehm and Kassin). Beta bias ­ may
not apply to both.
AO2 Couples Coping Enhancement Training ­ enhances relationships, sensitises
CCET couples to equity and respect. Couples reported higher marital quality
(Cina et al.) ­ effective treatment.
AO1 Maintenance difficulties ­ uni (Shaver et al.) Some strong enough to
Maintenance survive.
AO2 Holt and Stone ­ little decrease in relationship satisfaction if reunite
Reuniting regularly. LDR common so can work through.…read more

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