Slides in this set
Reward/Need Satisfaction Theory (Byrne and Clore)
AO1 Seek rewarding, avoid punishing. Rewards reflect unmet needs. Mutual
Theory attraction meet each other's.
AO1 Operant repeat behaviour that leads to desirable outcome/positive
Conditioning feelings. Individual offers direct reinforcement. Classical meet in positive
mood, like them more. Neutral stimulus valued, associated with event.
AO2 Cate et al. reward level superior in determining satisfaction.
AO2 Aron et al. high love means elevated activity in subcortical reward
AO2 Hays giving reinforcement is satisfying too.
AO2 Lott other cultures, women focus on others' needs.
Beta bias…read more
Similarity Theory (Byrne et al.)
AO1 Attracted to similar characteristics/traits. Sort pool of potential partners for
AO1 Berschied and Reis more likely attracted to similar personality traits.
Personality Attitude alignment protects relationship.
AO2 Condon and Crano similarity lessens chance of rejection, and sharing
Rejection attitudes is rewarding.
AO2 Yoshida economic level, physical condition. Even body fat (Speakman et
Other Factors al.)
AO2 Rosenbaum dissimilarities mean become less attracted.
AO2 Singh and Tan (Singapore) first attracted by similarity but became less
Universal attracted by dissimilarities. `Dissimilarity-Repulsion' isn't culturally biased.…read more
Social Exchange Theory (Thibaut and Kelley)
AO1 Social behaviour series of exchanges to maximise rewards, minimise
Profit/Loss costs for `profit'. Rewards - costs = profit/loss.
AO1 Comparison level (past relationships/general expectations). Comparison
Comparison level for alternatives (rewards of another partner - costs of ending current
AO2 Gottman and Levenson successful more positive exchanges. Negative
AO2 Rusbult and Martz explains abusive relationships where investment is
Abusive high and alternatives are low.
AO2 Other factors (media, emotions). Breaking down into simple profit/loss
AO2 Collectivist cultures are less mobile. May not apply as collectivists are
Beta bias concerned with things other than personal profit.…read more
Equity Theory (Walster et al.)
AO1 Strive for fairness, distressed at unfairness.
AO1 Not necessarily equality. Inputs and outputs. Changing the amount put in,
Inputs/ demand out, perceptions.
AO2 Stafford and Canary Relationship Maintenance Strategies Measure.
RMSM Satisfaction highest if equity perceived.
AO2 Jacobsen et al. Integrated Behavioural Couples Therapy. 2/3 couples
IBCT reported quality improvements (Christensen et al.)
AO2 Clark and Mills more relevant to exchange relationships. Lovers
Exchange governed more by desire to respond to needs.
AO2 Steil and Weltman husbands earn more career more important. Wife
Beta Bias earns more neither more important. Beta bias women downplay
Reasons for Breakdown (Duck)
AO1 Lack social skills unrewarding interactions. Lack stimulation boredom
Skills/ often quoted.
AO2 Boekhout et al. undergrads rated reasons for infidelity.
Extra-Marital Sexual reasons (sexual excitement) used by men. Emotional (lack of
Affairs control) from women. Due to lack of skills/stimulation.
AO2 Men and women give different reasons women stress incompatibility,
Beta Bias men affected by `sexual withholding' (Brehm and Kassin). Beta bias may
not apply to both.
AO2 Couples Coping Enhancement Training enhances relationships, sensitises
CCET couples to equity and respect. Couples reported higher marital quality
(Cina et al.) effective treatment.
AO1 Maintenance difficulties uni (Shaver et al.) Some strong enough to
AO2 Holt and Stone little decrease in relationship satisfaction if reunite
Reuniting regularly. LDR common so can work through.…read more