Section B: The changing economic world

Economic causes of global variation in economic development
food prices fluctuate, world trade organisation have not done enough to establish fair trade, corrupt leaders of LIC's have profited from selling resources cheaply to TNCs
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Physical causes causes of global variation in economic development
Climate, coast lines, natural hazards
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Historical causes of global variation in economic development
colonialism harmed many countries, historical conflict remained as obstacles, Britain, France and Spain built up empires by hurting South American and African countries
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What are the limitations of economic and social measures?
data may be hard to collect, people may lie, rapid migration causes it to change rapidly
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what are the 7 different measures of development?
GNI, people per doctor, birth and death rates, access to safe water, infant mortality, human development index
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How do you calculate Human development index?
GNI, literacy and life expectancy
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consequences of disparities in wealth
significant imbalance between HIC's and LIC's , 35% of the total wealth is held by 5% of the population
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consequences of disparities in health
LIC's have low level of health care and limited money to train doctors, Malaria and tuberculosis account for 1/3 of all deaths in LIC's
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consequences of migration?
People leave one country to find work in other countries and send remittances back to their own country
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How is economic development measured?
GNI per person
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How is social development measured?
literacy rates, life expectancy and access to safe water
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what happens in stage 1 of the DTM
high death rates reflect high infant mortality, high birth rate
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what happens in stage 2 of the DTM
improvements in basic health care lowers infant mortality
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what happens in stage 3 of the DTM
death rates fall further and birth rates falls
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what happens in stage 4 of the DTM
high standards of health care means death rate remains stable
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what happens in stage 5 of the DTM
A fall in birth rate means no natural increase
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How are countries classified?
economic development and quality of life
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How has investment helped to reduce the development gap?
companies have changed to become TNC's which means that large companies rely less on exporting. TNC's inject cash into countries and this causes a multiplier effect creating work and helps local businesses. Investments from china are helping African
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how has industrial development helped to reduce the development gap?
overproduction causes a lowering in prices of primary goods. Import taxes mean that for LIC's like kenya it is hard to sell goods to europe
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How has tourism helped to reduce the development gap?
Main source of employment in Jamaica. infrastructure has been built to support tourism, it brings in 2Billion a year. Thousands have been employed in farming and cleaning. 200,000 people are employed in tourism eg vincents glass bottom boat
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how has aid helped to reduce the development gap?
long term development goals helps LIC's to develop. Commonwealth is an example
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How has fairtrade helped to reduce the development gap?
they aim to produce a fair price for goods and producers. they make sure that if a food is out of season that the farmer gets their wage
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how have microfinance loans helped to reduce the development gap?
they allow farmers to escape poverty. They give farmers cash to escape a cycle of poverty so that they can stand on their own two feet
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how has intermediate technology helped to reduce the development gap?
sustainable energy is something local communities can use. education has improved and now children miss less days of school
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How has debt helped to reduce the development gap?
Having debt means that many LIC's will not be able to pay back loans from the 60's
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What are the 8 ways of reducing the development gap
investment, industrial development, debt, microfinance loans, fairtrade,tourism, intermediate technology and aid
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what is nigeria's global importance?
Nigeria has the 21st biggest economy and is the 12th largest oil producer
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what is Nigerias political context?
Europeans exploited African resources and promoted slavery. Nigeria had a civil war but has now become stable
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what is Nigeria's social context?
there are many tribes in Nigeria, there is a fundamentalist group called boko haram causing conflict
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what is Nigeria's cultural context
nigeria has its own film industry called nollywoord
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what is nigerias environmental context
in the south there is a tropical rainforest so cocoa and rubber can be grown in the north cotton can be grown
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what is the changing industrial structure of Nigeria
plastic and detergents can allow for a cheap market. oil and gas were discovered in the 70's which led to a boom in economy
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what are the environments impacts of development is nigeria
mining and oil extraction have caused oil spills and toxic fumes, mining has polluted water supplies
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what are the impacts of industrial development on the environment in Nigeria
waste disposal can poison rivers and urban sprawl has meant that large area of countryside have been swallowed up
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How can Nigeria continue to develop
water, sanitation and electricity must be a priority, corruption needs to be addressed and environmental issues must be addressed
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how are political relationships changing in nigeria
links with china are growing (12 billion given to a new railway), since 1960 nigeria has been part of the commonwelath
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how are trading relationships changing
imports- cars from Brazil, phones from China. Exports- crude oil natural gas and rubber to china
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how is aid helping nigeria develop
nigeria anually gets 5 billion from EU and unicef but some money gets stolen by government
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advantages of TNC's
large companies provide employment, they have business link to help business thrive, government benefits from export taxes.
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disadvantages of TNC's
the environment may be damaged, most of profit goes abroad TNC's can exploit
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What are the three causes of economical change?
deindustrialisation, government policies and globalisation
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what is de-industrialisation
this is when traditional industries have declined eg Easington collery. these industries were built near the source so when the industry declines whole communitites are unemployed
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What is Globalisation?
improvements intechnology means products can be moved with ease and there are highly skilled jobs in HIC's and low skill jobs in NEE
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What are government policies that affect uk economy?
the government set up industries to support uk declining industries, industries were transformed eg docklands to canary wharf, govern,ent invested in high tech manufacturing eg Northern Powerhourse
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How has IT helped move towards a post-industrial economy?
1.3 million people work in the IT sector which allows people to work from home. growth in manufacturing industries eg ocacdo where they have robots to pack groceries
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How have services helped move towards a post-industrial economy?
2million people work for the service industry which accounts for 10% of the national GDP, worlds leading centers for financial management
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How has research helped move towards a post-industrial economy?
quaternary industry employs 60,000 people and brings 3 billion to UK economy, linked to univercitys like oxbridge
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How have science parks helped move towards a post-industrial economy?
there are 100 parks employing 75,000 people access to A14 and opened by trinity college
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How have business parks helped move towards a post-industrial economy?
usually near the edge of towns where land is cheap eg ladymead retail park next tp a3
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how has population decline changed uk economy
in the outer hebrides less children will go to school eg Loch school, fewer people of working age, infrastructure cannot support tourism farming can only be done two days a week
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how has population increase changed the uk economy?
in south cambridge young people cannot buy homes, lack of affordable housing, reduced demand for public transport, pressure on services by european migrants
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how have industrial developments in the uk impacted the environment
waste materials pollute land and water eg thames side power station - tate modern, 2012 buxton factory was built with a curved roof to blend into the landscape, local stone was used outside, plants to enourgae wildlife, energy efficient lighting
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UK's place in the world?
British empire covered 1/3 of the world but countries gained independance and there is now the common wealth which maintains healthy relationships. G8 and UN security council
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how has trade impacted economy
Trade- Gaermany is main source of imports, us is main source of exports post brexit more likely to develop links with india and china
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how has transport impacted economy
links to europe through euro star ferries and cruise ship from ports in southhampton heathrow is one of the busiest airports
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how has culture impacted economy
television is a major ecport, shows like downtown abbey and doctor who Notting hill carnival where 2 million people attend anually
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how electrical communications impacted economy
new cable project between tokyo and london, artic fibre project
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How is the north south divide impacting economy
in the south there are high priced homes, low unemployment, better education and high imcomes opposite in the north
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What are th exceptions to the north south divide?
In london there are places with higher levels of unemployment and in scotland there is the north sea oil so there is less unemployment
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how is the government attempting to resolve the issue of the north south divide
investing in the northern power house, financial packages given to companies like nissan . HS2 railway opened in Manchester to spread economic growth in the north
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Physical causes causes of global variation in economic development

Back

Climate, coast lines, natural hazards

Card 3

Front

Historical causes of global variation in economic development

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the limitations of economic and social measures?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what are the 7 different measures of development?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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