Scholarship NEED TO READ THE ROLLASON CHAPTERS

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What can be said about the transmission of knowledge during the early medieval period?
People continued to transmit knowledge and techniques, but often with many selections, adaptations and innovations
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When did the Laurentian Library in Florence acquired a new manuscript from the Abbey of the Saviour, Monte Amiata?
1786
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What was the Codex Amiatinus?
A complete copy of the Vulgate Bible, the oldest in existence
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What does the dedication page of the Codex Amiatinus claim?
Gift from 'Peter the Lombard' to the Abbey of the Saviour in the 9th century
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What did the librarian in Florence notice about the Codex Amiatinus?
Original dedication had been tampered with
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What did the 18th century librarian suggest as a dating for the Codex Amiatinus?
6th century Italian
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What did a scholar notice about the dedication about Codex Amiatinus in 1888?
Dedication was almost identical to one recorded in 8th century Anglo-Saxon text about some gifts sent to Rome
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When were the Anglo-Saxon gifts sent to Rome?
716
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What did the dedication of The Anonymous History of Abbot Ceolfrid show?
Codex Amiatinu was not late Antique Italian but from 8th century Northumbria
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Why was the Codex Amiatinus important?
Vivid illustration of connections between Rome and Northumbria; testament to ambition and sophistication of Northumbrian scholarship at the time of Bede
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When did Cassiodorus die?
580s
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When was Cassiodorus born to an Italian aristocratic family?
485
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What was the role of Cassiodorus?
Member of Roman Senate, chief advisor and administrator under the Ostrogothic kings
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When was Italy reconquered by Byzantium?
553
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What happened to Cassiodorus after Italy reconquered?
Returned to his home estate Vivarium
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What did Cassiodorus do at Vivarium?
Established a Christian library and centre of learning
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What do the works of Cassiodorus include?
Variae, Chronicon, Gothic History (lost), Institutions, theological tracts
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Who drew on Cassiodorus' Gothic History as a source?
Jordanes
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What did Cassidorus' Institutions do?
Set out plan of sacred and secular learning, mixing Christian teachings with classical seven liberal arts
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What did Cassiodorus attempt to do with the Pope?
"Together with blessed Pope Agapetus of Rome, I made efforts to collect money so that it should rather be the Christian schools in the city of Rome that could employ learned teachers"
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Why could Cassiodorus not establish the Christian schools in Rome?
"raging wars and violent struggles in the Kingdom of Italy... a peaceful endeavour has no place in a time of unrest"
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Did Vivarium survive long?
No
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Where does Cassidorus' work seem to have been moved to?
Rome
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What did Cassiodorus' library probably include?
A large copy of the Bible known as Codex Grandior
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Where did the Codex Grandior remain for almost 100 years, its original owner eventually forgotten?
Rome
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When did Benedict Biscop die?
689
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When was Benedict Biscop born?
628
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When was the first arrival of Christianity in Northumbria?
625
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Where was Benedict Biscop from?
Noble family in Northumbria; spent time at royal court and was given land by king
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What did Benedict Biscop decide to do at 25/
Not to marry but to enter the church
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What did Benedict Biscop do in 652/3?
Went to Rome with Wilfrid
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When was Benedict Biscop's second visit to Rome; which he followed by two years as a monk at Lerins?
c.664
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When did Benedict Biscop found monastery at Monkwearmouth?
673/4
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When did Benedict Biscop found monastery at Jarrow?
681/2
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What was Benedict Biscop an ardent promoter of?
Roman Christianity (architecture, customs, music, scholarship)
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How many trips to Rome did Benedict Biscop make in total?
5
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What does Bede describe Benedict Biscop bringing back from Rome?
"a great mass of books of every sort" (fourth trip to Rome)
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What does Bede say that Benedict Biscop ordered soon before his death?
"that the fine and extensive library of books which he had brought back from Rome.. should be carefully preserved as a single collection"
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When did Ceolfrith die?
716
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Who was Ceolfrith?
From noble Northumbrian family
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How old was Ceolfrith when he became a monk?
18
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When did Ceolfrith go to Rome with Benedict?
679/80
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Was Ceolfrith keen on Roman Christianity and collecting books?
Yes
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Who appointed Ceolfrith to run new monastery at Jarrow?
Benedict Biscop
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What did Ceolfrith find in Rome in 679/80?
Codex Grandior
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When was the Jarrow church of St Paul dedicated?
23rd April 685 (12yo Bede would have been there)
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When was Ceolfrith made abbot of Wearmouth and Jarrrow?
689
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What was one of the projects of Ceolfrith?
"three Pandects [complete Bibles] copied: two of them to be placed in his monasteries' churches.... while the third he decided to offer when he was going to Rome as a gift to St Peter"
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Who was Ceolfrith teacher and master of?
Young Bede
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What was significant about the three pandects Ceolfrith had copied?
Major economic outlay - 1,550 calves slaughtered for each book, huge operation to produce vellum, years of work by skilled scribes and artists, probably ornate cover
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What happened to the Codex Grandior?
Lost entirely
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Which of the three pandects copied by Ceolfrith survives?
Codex Amiatinus; the others survive only in fragments
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What evidence is there that the Codex Amiatinus was directly inspired by the Codex Grandior?
Historical (Bede); paleographical (manuscript itself)
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Give the historical evidence that the Codex Amiatinus was directly inspired by the Codex Grandior
Bede: "added three copies of the new translation of the Bible to the one copy of the old translations which he had brought back from Rome"
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What does Bede's wording about the creation of the Codex Amiatinus suggest?
'Old translation' used as model; not exact copies, old translation was replaced with 'standard' 4th c. translation of Jerome (Vulgate)
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What is the single strongest indicator that Codex Amiatinus was a copy of the Codex Grandior?
Full page painted image of tabernacle- positions of altar of holocausts and labrum inaccurate according to Scripture, clearly copied
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What did Bede directly reference when discussing the altar of holocausts?
An image he knew in the Codex Grandior [which sounds like what we see in Codex Amiatinus
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When did Bede die?
732
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When was Bede born?
673
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How old was Bede when he entered the monastery?
Child
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Who tutored Bede?
Ceolfrith
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Who were the only trained monks who survived the plague at Monkwearmouth-Jarrow when Bede was a boy?
Bede and Ceolfrith
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What does the fact that Bede knew the Codex Grandior in detail suggest?
Likely involved in production of Codex Amiatinus
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What did Bede regard himself of, like Cassiodorus?
Transmitter of ancient knowledge
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What is Bede described as?
'Father of English History'
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Whose fame spread quickly after their death, even to Europe?
Bede
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Which of Bede's texts was there demand for?
Theological and hagiographical works rather than Ecclesiastical History
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Boniface to Archbishop Egbert of York, 746/7
"I beg you also to have copied and sent to me some of the treatises of the lector Bede"
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Boniface to Abbot Huetbert of Monkwearmouth-Jarrow, 746/7
"We beg you to be so kind as to copy and send us some of the treatises of that keenest investigator of the Scriptures, the monk Bede"
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What did Abbot Cuthbert of Monkwearmouth-Jarrow write to Bishop Lul of Mainz in 764?
"It does seem to right to me that the entire race of the English... should give thanks to God that He granted them such a wonderful man... I say this because I came to know it through experience, nurtured at his very feet"
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What did Abbot Cuthbert use Bede's reputation for?
Seeking Bishop Lul to send him a 'zither player' (cithara) and says that will "be ever-ready to fulfill your desire" of copies of Bede in return
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What does example of Bede show?
How connections were made and maintained between 'generations' of scholars; Boniface and Bede never met but through posthumous fame students able to connect and Anglo-Saxon influence spread
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When did the Northumbrian, Alcuin die?
804
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When wasAlcuin born?
735
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Where was Alcuin educated, under Egbert and AElbert?
York
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What was significant about York?
Major centre of learning in Europe at the time, famous for its library
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When did Charlemagne meet Alcuin in Italy?
781 - headhunted as top scholar at Carolingian royal court
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Who was a major architect of the Carolingian Renaissance?
Alcuin
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Who tutored the Carolingian royal family, close advisor of Charlemagne, reintroduced ancient texts, helped draft imperial policy and spearheaded reforms in written and spoken Latin?
Alcuin
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What did Charlemagne order in the General Admonition (789)?
"Let schools be established in which boys may learn to read"
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What did the Carolingian Renaissance mark?
New era in European scholarship
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Where can the roots of the Carolingian Renaissance be traced?
In part to the earliest generation of Anglo-Saxon Christians
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What did the Anglo-Saxons develop obsession with?
'purity' and 'correctness' in language and ritual
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What was the ultimate aim?
Understanding Scripture and obtaining salvation for humanity
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What did scholars make common practice that we now take for granted?
Punctuation, spaces between words, miniscule script
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Literacy
Being able to read and write; being able to understand what reading
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Scholarship
Applying self to the study of something
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Education
Sources discuss education, learning through books is ideal but there are other ways of doing it
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Education is about thinking about information. How might Benedict and Cassiodorus discuss htis?
In terms of meditation
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Whose court was Cassiodorus at?
Theodric
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Did Cassiodorus ever officially take orders himself?
No
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What did Cassiodorus want?
Less secular teachers and more Christian teachers
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When was Benedict of Nursia alive?
~480-550
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What was Benedict of Nursia famous for?
Rule of Saint Benedict
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Where was Benedict of Nursia?
Italy, monastery of Monte Cassino
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What was significant about Bede's text On Reckoning of Time?
Best way of setting out the mathematical formulas for Easter
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What did the calculation of the date for Easter require?
Lunar calendar
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What was significant about the fact that Bede corrected the formula for calculation of date of Easter?
Was not in Jerusalem where it was meant to be reckoned from - impressive
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Where was Alcuin active?
Charlemagne's court at Auchen
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What did Alcuin help develop?
Carolingian Minuscule (handwriting)
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What is debatable about Alcuin's role in the development of Carolingian Minuscule?
Whether he was the person who decided shaping of each letter - but he was present when tradition created
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Is it fair to describe Charlemagne as a scholar?
Promotes education; Carolingian Renaissance; Alcuin teaching him; set up law codes that set up cathedral and law schools leading to more educated populace
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Why did Charlemagne promote literacy?
Creation of large bureaucracy developing in empire
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What was significant about Alcuin's time?
More knowledge of Christianity - can focus on creating new form of wrting
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Who were keen to restrict what people were able to learn?
Cassiodorus and Benedict of Nursia
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What were the benefits of Carolingian Miniscule?
Faster to write and closer to printing, in theory easier to read in the long run
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Who might not be represented by literary sources?
Women, peasants, people from certain countries (e.g. Ireland), other religions, those who couldn't afford to give up children to monastery
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Women
Role of women within household - clergy only open to men so is barrier to education of women
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Kings
Apart from Charlemagne, kings not focused on. Having to be educated as adults, whereas people could be given up to monastery as a child
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What is suggested by the fact most kings not educated?
Education more religious than political - although may be changing as Charlemagne was educated and his children were too
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Cassidorus
Theodoric's court was trying to take over last vestiges of Roman empire, trying to retain some bureaucracy
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Give example of ways in which Charlemagne trying to emulate Rome
Cathedral at Auchen built in Roman style and Carolingian minuscule based on Roman capitals seen in stone inscriptions
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What did Charlemagne do when he went into Saxony?
Brings education with him - drive to convert. Educating the pagans in Saxony through Christianity.
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Does education have to go through monastery?
* Elders pass down knowledge (craft/trade); girls learn skills through family and marry within social circle (fields/craft/domestic skills)
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What was Charlemagne's push on education related to?
Creation of more rigid law codes which had not been present previously aside from under Roman system - needed literate people to run bureaucracy
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Types of literacy
Numerical literacy; people who can write - many have central role in locality
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Charlemagne's empire divided into provinces where could send representatives including lawyers.
Bring back things from other kingdoms; Charlemagne may have gained from the knowledge in the Middle East and Constantinople
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Constantinople
Centre of eastern empire and was a centre of education whic hretained Greek influence
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What did Charlemagne's father make his name doing?
Fighting Muslims in southern France
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What would Charlemagne probably have done?
Sent ambassadors to the Arab speaking world and brought knowledge back from that; could argue reason to expand Christian teaching, to avoid Muslim influence
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What is an issue with the study of scholarship?
Oral tradition of learning, may never have been written down; sources destroyed (war, fires by accident also); inks not durable though animal skins are; earlier material destroyed; books destroyed in flood or sea (English Channel or North Sea)
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As learning developed earlier material was deemed heretical or wrong. What was done with it?
Destroyed - clergymen would destroy books by Aristotle and Virgil
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What is an interesting reason why pagan texts may have been washed clean and used again?
Washing clean sins
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Who was Cassiodorus the son of?
Praetorian prefect of Rome under Theodoric
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What did Cassiodorus do while turning back on outside world?
Withdrawing intellectually and spiritually to become a spiritualist and conversus
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Conversus
One who 'converts' from a life of evil to one of living according to Christian principles
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What did Cassiodorus do that most monasteries did not?
Embraced both ancient nad Christian thought, insisting that monastery should be place to worship and preserve a spirit of learning
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How old was Cassiodorus when he became a full time monk?
Sixties
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Although Cassiodorus did not teach monks to make clocks as should focus minds elsewhere, what did he give them late in his life?
"I had two clocks made for you, a sundial fed by sunlight, and a water clock giving the number of hours constantly, by day and night"
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What are the sources for our knowledge about Bede's life?
Sparse: his brief autobiographical note, an account of his death by pupil Cuthbert, prefaces to his prose Life of Saint Cuthbert etc
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How many works are on Bede's incomplete list?
the Ecclesiastical History
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Why did Bede recount the lives of saints?
So they might serve as role models for society
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What is a manuscript?
Handwritten original text
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What is the significance of a manuscript for historians?
Original text, shows what they were thinking at time, materials used, why it was written, way written
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What is required to make a manuscript?
Vellum, parchment, scribe, ink made out of carbon (black) and pigments (colours), quill, way of binding, gold leaf, brushes
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What is important about manuscripts?
Made to be used in church ceremonies, not about being practical but about being visually appealing
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Lindisfarne Gospels
Focus on maintaining an evenness of letter styles
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Codex Amniatus
Roman uniseal characters, smaller version of the Roman inscriptions on stone, angular as was originally designed to be carved into stone
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Book of Kells and Lindisfarne Gospels
Insular miniscule
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Insular minuscule
Differentiation between capitals and lowercase in this alphabet, when writing can write more quickly that Roman technique
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What is the benefit of insular minuscule?
In theory it is easier to read, allowing for easier word division than was possible in older manuscripts
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What are the possibilities for why the Codex Amiatinus is less decorated than other books?
Lindisfarne Gospels and Book of Kells provide inspiration while the Pope may not need decoration
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Who called the Synod of Whitby in 664?
King of Northumbria
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Why was the Synod of Whitby called?
As there were two forms of Christianity in England. Division between Irish and Roman Christianity
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What were significant divisions between Roman and Irish Christianity?
Calculation of date of Easter and how monks are tonsured (how hair shaved)
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What religion was the king of Northumbria in 664?
celtic Christianity
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What religious stance did the queen of Northumbria take in 664?
Roman Christianity
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Why is a likely reason that the king of Northumbria chose to follow the Roman Christianity view on dates of Easter?
Did not wish to risk the wrath of the Pope
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What would have affected the production of the Codex Amiatinus?
When it was written it had only been around 50 years since Roman Christianity accepted in northern England. Sending as statement of orthodoxy rather than heresy.
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What are traditional symbols used in texts?
John - eagle (winged); Matthew - man or angel (winged); Mark - lion (winged); Luke - o (winged)
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What was there a fine line between in the period?
Christianity and myth; have Christian myths
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What is the pelican representative of and why?
Christ; uses own blood to feed children
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Are facsimile copies of book illumination common?
No - are so rare that require special explanations; majority of images can be considered to be both copies and variations
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Why was medieval book illustration distinguished from other forms of medieval art?
Physical and thematic relationships to the text written in a certain way on certain materials for certain uses
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Facsimile
Suggests a copy as accurate as possible and the more accurate the more praiseworthy; in the Middle Ages facsimiles are unlikely to have been made in quantity
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Why might medieval attempts to make facsimile copies be an issue?
Had to be legible and writing styles change - e.g. Canterbury in early eleventh century monks of Christ Church decided to make copy of Carolingian psalter made at Rheims ~820; Canterbury wrote it in Caroline minuscule
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When does the Book of Kells date from?
790s or early 800s
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Where is the Book of Kells from?
Probably either Iona or Kells in Ireland - monks moved so not sure where they started it
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Book of Gospels
Gospels with some other texts around it
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What is the tradition surrounding the Book of Kells?
Made by Saint Colum Cille, tradition of being made by a saint makes it important
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Codex Amiatinus
Nearly complete Bible produced in Northumbria
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Why did the Codex Amiatinus not make it to Pope Gregory II?
The man taking it died on route to Rome
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Where was the Codex Amiatinus found?
Tuscany
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What is the portrait of Ezra in the Codex Amiatinus generally accepted to be?
Exact copy of a portrait of Ezra from the preface of a Bible written in Vivarium monastery for Cassiodorus
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What do some argue about the portrait of Ezra in the Codex Amiatinus?
Was the actual portrait from Cassidorus' Bible retained and inserted OR painted not by Anglo-Saxon but by Italian visitor to Northumbria
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What is the convincing argument about the portrait of Ezra in the Codex Amiatinus?
Rupert L.S. Bruce-Mitford's argument that the portrait is integral and Anglo-Saxon
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What is unusual about the portrait of Ezra in the Codex Amiatinus?
Facsimile copy made of an original 100-150 years earlier in date
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What makes the fact that the Codex Amiatinus was a present to the Shrine of St Peter in Rome understandable?
Context of the struggle between the Roman and Celtic parties of church in England after the Synod of Whitby in 664
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Which party triumphed at the synod?
The Roman party, to which Benedict Biscop, founder of Wearmouth-Jarrow belonged
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Why is the Codex Amiatinus unlikely to have been a complete facsimile of the Codex Grandior?
Second miniature prefacing the New Testament is not copied accurately from earlier Bible but is a pastiche by Anglo-Saxon artist
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Who is credited with writing of the Latin manuscript of Lindisfarne Gospels?
Eadfrith
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Who provided the ornaments for Lindisfarne Gospels?
Hermit
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Did the same man write the Latin and translate inot Anglo-Saxon?
No
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Who were the Lindisfarne Gospels dedicated to?
Saint Cuthbert; written for God, Cuthbert and the saints
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What is the expectation for the use of the Lindisfarne Gospels?
Put on the altar near Cuthbert's tomb
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When do the Lindisfarne Gospels date from?
698-721
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When do most current studies date Lindisfarne Gospels to?
Closer to 721; would have taken over five years to write the text
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What would it be useful to do before the exam?
Read the Rollason chapter on this issue!
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While dominated by the Church, what was also preserved?
Pre-Christian literature
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What continued, although there was alteration and selection of classical heritage?
Old Roman classical forms
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Where is the Codex Amiatinus dedicated to?
"To hte monastery of the sublime Saviour, justly venerated"
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Who does the dedicator of the Codex Amiatinus claim to be?
Peter, abbot from the furthest borders of the Lombards
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What is wrong with the dedication of the Codex Amiatinus?
Must have originally read something else as certain words are in red in the Latin - replaced, dedicatio not to Peter (Petrus)
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Abbot Chilfrid had sent gifts to Rome in 716, including translated Bible, what was the verse?
"To the body of sublime Peter... I, Ceolfrith, abbot from the furthest borders of the English"
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What is the significance of the original wording of the dedication, "to the body of sublime Peter"?
Dedicated to the church of Saint Peter and so to the Pope in Rome
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When was the final conquest of Italy?
553
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Card 2

Front

When did the Laurentian Library in Florence acquired a new manuscript from the Abbey of the Saviour, Monte Amiata?

Back

1786

Card 3

Front

What was the Codex Amiatinus?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does the dedication page of the Codex Amiatinus claim?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What did the librarian in Florence notice about the Codex Amiatinus?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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