1. An Protestant Nation? - An Introduction

  • Created by: Alasdair
  • Created on: 04-05-19 11:06
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  • 1. An Protestant Nation? - An Introduction
    • 1. 1558-1640: key events and change over time
      • a. Elizabeth
        • Managing the legacy of Catholicism
        • 1530s Reformation within living memory
        • International threats/domestic plots against Elizabeth
      • b. James I & VI
        • start of Stuart dynasty
        • a Scottish, Protestant king (union of England and Scotland)
        • balancing puritans & Catholics
        • Growth of popular politics
      • c. Charles I
        • smooth succession
        • Anti-puritanism
        • re-evaluating English Protestantism
        • Laudianism
    • 2. Historical approaches to period
      • Periodization (1558-1640) used to evaluate Protestantism
      • Impact of Protestantism in key areas
        • Politics
        • Religious beliefs and practices
        • Local society
        • Culture
    • 3. More recent emphases in scholarship
      • Challenging the inevitability of Protestantism and its transformation into the Anglicanism of the 19th Century
        • Cultural approaches
        • More study of popular politics and culture
        • More complex understanding of religious toleration and persecution
    • 4. Historical context
      • a. Henrician Reformation
        • A political process
        • But reforms develops a life of its own
        • Key elements:
          • Rejection of papal authority
          • Dissolution of monasteries
          • Henry's reign ends with conservative backlash.
            • Not straightforward Protestantization
      • b. Edwardian Reformation
        • 1547-53: see MacCulloch and Marshall
          • More emphatically Protestant
          • Changes to church interiors
          • New Book of Common Prayer (prayer and forms of church services)
        • Result:
          • Compliance; Catholic practices abolished, e.g. Prayers for dead
      • c. Mary, 1553-1558
        • Reintroduction of Catholicism
        • Politics polarized by religion
        • Difficult to overturn Henrician changes (e.g. papal supremacy; return of church lands)
        • Popular support for many Catholic practices
        • Mary tried to revive old religious practices
        • Reign has divisive edge - first government to remodel local government on religious grounds
          • Attempts to purge local government
        • Mary not able to turn clock back
          • Due to fact some of the things Henry did are impossible to reverse, like dissolution of Monasteries
    • 5. Accession of Elizabeth
      • How to configure royal authority over the church?
      • Elizabethan settlement: ambiguous, surprisingly moderate
      • Constraints on the settlement:
        • International situation
        • conservative religion of  many, esp. aristocracy
        • need to use parliament to establish authority (cf. Henry VIII)
        • Elizabeth herself
          • Pragmatist
          • Unclear what her private religious beliefs were
          • In her Chapel, she has a Crucifix (Catholic remnant) - may just be down to personal taste
          • Under Protestantism, Clergy don't have to be celibate but Elizabeth prefers unmarried bishops
          • Elizabeth could be very anti-Catholic
        • Elizabeth follows Edward and Mary in terms of authority over Church
        • Elizabethan government hindered by constraints so cannot impose some of the rigorous Protestants reforms it wants to desire
          • Wished to maintain alliance with Spain so religious change would affect this
          • People conservative in religion - Mary had put many people in positions of authority who were Catholics, e.g. bishops
          • Aristocracy extremely Catholic
          • Needs Parliament to exact some changes
          • Faces opposition in House of Lords
      • Key elements of Elizabeth settlement
        • Act of Supremacy (royal authority)
        • Act of Uniformity (church attendance)
      • Religious Practices and Ideas
        • Catholic church structure (episcopacy - rule by bishops)
        • 39 Articles (1563), Calvinist in nature
        • Book of Common Prayer (1559), retains many older ceremonies
      • Rhetoric of royal authority
        • Loyalty to monarch as a religious leader, facilitating access to bible and preserving 'true' religion
      • Background
        • Well educated, charismatic
        • Had survived period of persecution
        • Rode in on wave of popularity
        • Some of things Mary did, like executions, didn't sit well with everyone
        • Elizabeth was hoped by some bring stability
        • How to configure royal authority over the church?
        • Elizabethan settlement: ambiguous, surprisingly moderate
    • 6. The Bible and other historical artifacts
      • Henry VIII and the bible
        • The title page of the 1539 'Great Bible' shows flow of authority from God, to Henry and to the English clergy and nobility
      • Elizabeth and the Bible
        • The 1569 Bishops' Bible
          • Monarch still on front covers of expensive Bibles
      • A rare, surviving image for the chancel painted in the reign of Mary I
    • 7. Replacing religious imagery
      • Elizabethan settlement: the limits of royal authority

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