Russian February Revolution 1917 flashcards

When did Nicholas II become Tsar
1 of 33
1. Orthodox monk
2. Told the Tsarina that he could cure her son
3. Had a close relationship and influence over the family
4. Disliked by the population (controversial)
2 of 33
Tsarina Alexandra
1. Tsarina - wife of Nicholas II
2. German, problematic during WW2
3. Took over the running of Russia, was very unpopular
3 of 33
Peter Stolypin
1. Russian minister
2. Tried to modernise agriculture (gave peasants right to land)
3. Built large amounts of railway
4 of 33
Tsar Nicholas II
1. Tsar of Russia (1894-1917)
2. Very autocratic
3. Authority was questioned (his role as the 'little father')
4. His handling of WW2 was questioned
5 of 33
Father Gapon
Priest who led the Bloody Sunday peaceful protest (1905)
6 of 33
Bloody Sunday peaceful protest
1. Tried to deliver a petition to the Tsar
2. Were shot in the process
3. Started the 1905 revolution and made people question the Tsar
7 of 33
How did the Tsar contribute to the February revolution? (Pre 1914)
Being indecisive and unwilling to abandon autocracy
8 of 33
How the political system before the war led to revolution
Still very much an autocracy, also outdated and corrupt
9 of 33
How the middle class led to revolution
Growing middle class wanted a bigger say and role in government
10 of 33
how the urban workers led to revolution
Dissatisfied with the working conditions, strikes increasing
11 of 33
How the peasants led to revolution
Still very poor and hungry for land, dissatisfied
12 of 33
Impacts of the war
1. The defeats made the soldiers reluctant to fight
2. Tsar's decision to take control in 1915, personally blamed for defeats, left Russia in bad hands
3. Middle classes saw the government as incompetent
4. Economic impact of the war
5. Peasants hit by lo
13 of 33
How many soldiers had deserted by early 1917 and why?
Around 1 million
14 of 33
Conditions in Russia in 1917
1. Food shortages (1/4 of the bread available as 1914)
2. Temperatures get to -35 degrees
3. Fuel shortages
4. Strikes - 30,000 in Moscow - 145,000 in Petrograd
15 of 33
What caused Russia to wake up and try to modernise? (1904-1905)
Heavy defeats in the Russo-Japenese war
16 of 33
Consequences of the 1905 revolution
1. October manifesto: included a Duma (parliament), more freedom of speech, political parties
17 of 33
Who supported the October manifesto?
Middle class, liberals, they feared communism and the masses, wanted a constitutional monarchy
18 of 33
What was flawed about the Duma?
The Tsar still had complete control, he could rule by decree and override the Duma, it had no real power
19 of 33
What did Stolypin do between 1906 and 1911?
1. Tried to modernise, economic growth (8%), increased factories and workers
2. Increased repression and executions (200,000 prisoners) (5000 deaths)
20 of 33
What happens to strikes between 1911 and 1914?
Increased from 24 to 2401
21 of 33
What event sparked a lot of strikes?
Lena Goldfield massacre, 17th April 1912
22 of 33
What else caused many strikes?
Food and fuel shortages caused by economic recessions and bad harvests
23 of 33
Features of the Dumas
1. The first 2 were radical Dumas
2. Duma 2 called 'the Duma of the people's wrath'
3. Last 2 worked with the Tsar after elections
4. Duma 3 passed social reform and national insurance for workers
5. Duma began to speak out against the Tsar after start of
24 of 33
What was the initial reaction to Russia joining the war?
Positive and patriotic
25 of 33
Reasons for fading support
30,000 deaths at Tannenburg and Masaurian Lakes, as well as other heavy defeats
26 of 33
What policy did the Tsar introduce just after the start of the war, what were the repercussions?
Prohibition of alcohol, led to resentment and less taxes for the government
27 of 33
What did Russia have to do financially?
Leave the gold standard and start printing money
28 of 33
What did the Tsar do to take control in 1915 and what happened?
1. The Tsar made himself commander in chief
2. Left him solely responsible for losses
3. Left Tsarina Alexandra to take over Russia
29 of 33
What were the issues with the Tsarina leading Russia?
1. Her German roots meant many in Russia didn't trust her, spread rumours about her being a spy
2. She was heavily influenced by Rasputin, very unpopular
3. She introduced what many called 'ministerial leapfrog' as many ministers changed
30 of 33
Which organisation tried to help the Tsar and who led it?
Zemgor, led by Prince Lvov
31 of 33
Issues surrounding peasants
1. The 'Great Retreat' mainly involving peasant soldiers was humiliating for Russia
2. The less peasants in Russia and economic pressures meant less food and food hoarding
32 of 33
Increasing problems facing Russia in 1916
1. Inflation at 300%
2. Strikes up to 684
3. Unemployment in non-war factories rose, Petrograd overcrowded
4. 340,000 new troops - peasant recruits
5. 5.5 million out of 14.6 million mobilised troops died
6. Desertion reached 1.5 million
7. The Tsar's Unc
33 of 33

Other cards in this set

Card 2




1. Orthodox monk
2. Told the Tsarina that he could cure her son
3. Had a close relationship and influence over the family
4. Disliked by the population (controversial)

Card 3


Tsarina Alexandra


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Peter Stolypin


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Tsar Nicholas II


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all Russia - 19th and 20th century resources »