T1: Flashcards

  • Created by: gemshort
  • Created on: 18-01-18 12:55
What was Russification?
Forcing non-Russians to speak Russian and wear Russian clothes
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What was the structure of the Tsarist state?
It was an autocracy
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What happened in 1902?
Economic crisis caused by internal economic slump and bad harvests
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What happened in 1904?
Russia went to war with Japan - it was a military disaster
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What happened in 1905?
Revolution - the Tsar ordered soldiers to fire on a peaceful demonstration; in response, there were widespread strikes and riots
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What was the October Manifesto?
A document issued by the Tsar, promising an elected Parliament (duma), freedom of speech, an end to censorship and the right to form political parties
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When did the Tsar go to the front?
September 1915
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How many Russians had died/been wounded in the war by December 1916
1.6 million dead, 3.9 million wounded
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What percentage of Russian soldiers deserted in WII?
25%
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What was the economic impact of WII on Russia?
Decrease in living standards; disruption of supplies meant food, goods and raw materials were in short supply; hundreds of factories closed; inflation up by 200%; lack of fuel; workers became hostile towards the Tsarist rule
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What was the political impact of WII on Russia?
The Tsarina and Rasputin were totally discredited; the nobility and generals lost support for the Tsar
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What was the Progressive Bloc?
A group within the duma that suggested the Tsar establish a government of public confidence; the Tsar rejected their approach
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Outline Marxist stage theory
Primitive communism; feudalism; bourgeois revolution; capitalism; socialist revolution; socialism; communism
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Why was there opposition to the Tsarist rule?
There was a long history of opposition and more Russians wanted a complete change in the way Russia was ruled, e.g. a constitutional government and political freedom as well as higher living standards
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What happened on the 22nd February 1917?
Strikes at the Putilov Arms factory resulted in a lock out, meaning 20,000 workers were on the streets along with women protesting food and fuel shortages
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What happened on 23rd February 1917?
International Women's Day demonstrators were joined by 90,000 strikers
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What happened on 24th February 1917?
200,000 workers were on strike and called for an end to Tsarism
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What happened on 25th February 1917?
250,000 workers were on strike. Workers began to form soviets and soldiers begin to defect to the demonstrators
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What happened on 26th February 1917?
Nicholas II ordered the army to put down demonstrations; the army fired on demonstrators and 50 people were killed
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What happened on 27th February 1917?
66,000 soldiers mutinied and armed the protesters with 44,000 rifles. The Petrograd Soviet of Workers, Sailors and Soldiers Deputies was formed
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What happened on 28th February 1917?
Virtually all soldiers in Petrograd joined the revolution. The Tsar, blocked from returning to Petrograd by railway workers, sent a telegram to Rodzianko offering to share power with the duma. Rodzianko replied 'The measures you propose are too late'
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What happened on 1st March 1917?
The mutiny spread to Moscow and the naval base of Kronstadt
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What happened on 2nd March 1917?
The duma appointed ministers and declared itself the Provisional Government. Nicholas II abdicated in favour of his brother, Michael, who refused to take the throne
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Who made up the Provisional Government?
Made up of leading liberals, mainly Kadets, and was chosen by the duma rather than elected by the people
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Who led the Provisional Government?
Prince Lvov
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What was the purpose of the Provisional Government?
To run the country until an elected Constituent Assembly could be formed
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What was the Provisional Government in charge of?
Deciding the constitution and form of government for Russia
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Who was the first chairman of the Petrograd Soviet?
Chkheidze, a leading Menshevik
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How many members did the Petrograd Soviet have by March 10th 1917?
Over 3000
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Which groups made up the Executive Committee?
Factory-elected delegates, Mensheviks and non-party socialists
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What was Order No. 1?
Soldiers demanded representation and were allowed to elect committees to send representatives to the Soviet, giving committees control of all weapons. The soldiers would only obey the PG if the PS agreed
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What was the Petrograd Soviet in charge of?
The telegraph station, factories, power supplies, railways and soldiers in the Petrograd garrison and their weapons
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Who was a member of both the Provisional Government and the Petrograd Soviet?
Kerensky; he was Minister of Justice in the Provisional Government and acted as the main line of communication between the two
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What did the Provisional Government and Petrograd Soviet want to do about the issue of war?
The PG wanted an offensive war whereas the PS wanted a defensive war or immediate peace
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What did the Provisional Government and Petrograd Soviet want to do about the issue of land?
Both wanted to let the future Constituent Assembly resolve the issue
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What did the Provisional Government and Petrograd Soviet want to do about the issue of nationalities?
The PG wanted to keep national minorities in the Russian Empire; the PS wanted more self-governance for national minorities
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What did the Provisional Government and Petrograd Soviet want to do about the issue of social reform for the workers?
The PG believed there was no need for any more social reform; the PS believed that the socialist revolution was still to come
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What did the Provisional Government and Petrograd Soviet want to do about the issue of the Constituent Assembly?
Both believed that the elections should be delayed as each group did not yet have enough support to win
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What did the soldiers want from the Provisional Government and what did the Provisional Government do?
The soldiers wanted an end to the war; the PG planned to continue the war
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What did peasants want from the Provisional Government and what did the Provisional Government do?
The peasants wanted land reform; the PG created a new system of local government dominated by landowners and used the army to suppress peasant violence
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What did workers want from the Provisional Government and what did the Provisional Government do?
Workers wanted better living standards; the PG tried to deal with food shortages by increasing the price of grain - peasants refused to sell because there was nothing to buy
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Why was Kerensky's June Offensive a disaster?
There were high rates of desertion, territory was lost and soldiers killed officers rather than fighting; this led to riots in Petrograd
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What was the impact of the July Days (riots) on the Bolsheviks?
The Provisional Government blamed the Bolsheviks for the riots; leading Bolsheviks were arrested; Lenin escaped to Finland and the Soviet newspaper denounced the Bolsheviks
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Who did Kerensky appoint as Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces?
General Kornilov
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How many members did the Bolshevik Party have in July 1917?
75,000
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Why did Kerensky arm the workers in Petrograd when Kornilov was marching towards it?
He thought that Kornilov was going to attempt to overthrow the Provisional Government and become a military dictator
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Why did Kornilov fail to reach Petrograd?
Railway workers blocked him
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What was the result of the Kornilov Affair?
Kerensky lost the support of the army; the Mensheviks and SRs were discredited; the Bolsheviks were seen as the protectors of the revolution; the Bolshevik Red Guard was armed
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When did the Bolsheviks gain majorities in the Moscow and Petrograd Soviets?
September 1917
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Who was elected chairman of the Petrograd Soviet in September 1917?
Trotsky
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What did Kerensky do that led the Petrograd Soviet to withdraw their support from the Provisional Government in September 1917?
He ordered some of the Petrograd garrison to the front, going against his word
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Why did Lenin think that, in September 1917, it was the right time for the Bolsheviks to seize power?
They had control of the Soviet; they had done well in elections; the PG was discredited due to the Kornilov Affair; he feared that if they waited, the PG could pull out of the war and elect a Constituent Assembly
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Who wanted to wait before the Bolshevik takeover as they feared it would lead to civil war?
Zinoviev and Kamenev
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Who suggested waiting until the All-Russia Congress of Soviets until the Bolshevik takeover and why?
Trotsky suggested this because the Bolsheviks seemed likely to have a majority there, which would legitimise their takeover
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Why did the Soviet set up a Military Revolutionary Committee and who did it contain?
They feared a German invasion. It contained 3 Bolshevik members (including Trotsky but not Lenin) and two SR members
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Why did Lenin accuse the Provisional Government of attacking the Soviet on 23rd October 1917?
Because Kerensky shut down two Bolshevik newspapers and tried to restrict the power of the Military Revolutionary Committee, due to his fears that the Bolsheviks wanted to seize power
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When did the Red Guard take control of Petrograd's bridges, telephone exchange, power and railway stations?
24th October 1917
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Why was the Bolshevik takeover of Petrograd slow but bloodless?
Kerensky could find no one to fight for him, but it took the Bolsheviks a while to realise this
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What happened on 25th October 1917?
The Bolsheviks had control of all of Petrograd and stormed the Winter Palace, arresting the members of the Provisional Government
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What was the structure of the Tsarist state?

Back

It was an autocracy

Card 3

Front

What happened in 1902?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happened in 1904?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What happened in 1905?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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