Russia Flashcards

Issues with ruling Russia pre 1917
Autocracy, corrupt civil servants, Okhrana, Powerful church, Subject nationalities
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Problems of peasants pre 1917
little arable land, old fashioned methods, short life expectancy
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Problems of workers pre 1917
delayed industrialization, terrible conditions, no unions
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What was bloody Sunday?
a peaceful march for working conditions, made up of 200,000 people, lead by Father Gapon to the winter palace was shot at by palace guards, killing and wounding thousands
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Why was there opposition to the Tsar?
Russo-Japanese war, Stolypin, Rasputin, Failure of Dumas
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Why was the October Manifest created?
To stop the 1905 revolution
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What political groups opposed the Tsar?
Bolsheviks, Mencheviks, The Socialist revolutionaries, The Constitutional Democratic Party, The Octobrist
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Who were the Socialist Revolutionaries?
Peasants who wanted to share land out and overthrow the tsar using terror, led by Kerensky
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Who were the the Constitutional Democrats?
Emerging middle class who wanted a constitutional monarchy, led by Milyukov
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Who were the Octobrists
Emerging middle class who believed in the October Manifesto, led by Guchkov
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Why did Russia face defeats in WWI?
Poor communication & transport, no food, no weapons, poor tactics, poor morale and the tsar's leadership
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Impact of WWI in Russia
famine, less workers, lack of faith in tsar, little support for war
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Events: February 1917
International women's day strikes, duma became Provisional committee, Petrograd Soviet meet
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Events: March 1917
Soviet order number one published, tsar forced to resign, Provisional government take over
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Initial reforms of PG
promise of constituent assembly, recognition of unions, political prisoner amnesty, freedom of speech & religion, abolition of secret police
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Economic problems of PG
peasants looting, no law enforcement, famines and shortages continued
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Political problems of PG
weren't voted in, Poles and Finns wanted independence, stuck in dual authority with PS
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Military problems of PG
WWI defeats, soldiers deserting, didnt pull out of war, Germany funded return of revolutionaries
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Features of April Thesis
end WWI, nationalisation, power to the soviets and workers, land for the peasants, no bureaucracy
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How did the July days end?
Kerensky and loyal troops stopped rebels and Lenin fled to Finland
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How did the Kornilov revolt end?
Kerensky armed the red guard and persuaded the troops to desert.
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Why did Lenin call for revolution in October 1917?
The all russian congress of soviets were about to meet, the bolsheviks were not going to have a majority in CA, Zinoviev and Kamenev published the plans
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What was Trotsky's role in the October revolution?
organised the military, gave speeches, controlled petrogad soviet
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Key features of October Revolution
Bolsheviks marched to Winter Palace and met little resistance, PG put under arrest
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Why were the bolsheviks successful?
The PG was weak, the bolsheviks had arms, reds had support of the army
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Sovnakorm reforms
divide land for peasants, worker insurance, end WWI, egalitarianism, censorship, elected worker councils, workers benefits, CDP banned, control over banks, wedding and divorce reform, cheka
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Features of Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
ended Russian involvement in WWI, 1/3 russian empire lost, 3 billion roubles lost, arable land and resources lost
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How did bolsheviks establish control?
Shut down CA, Sovnakom reforms, BL treaty
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Who opposed the Reds in 1918?
The whites (ex tsarist officers), The Greens (national minorities), The Czech Legion and The Allies
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Why did the reds win the civil war?
war communism, Trostky & conscription, Peasant support, lack of white communication, Romanov murder
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Key features of War Communism
harsh rationing, used to feed army, massive famine, banning private trade, nationalisation of factories
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Reasons for NEP
Kronstadt mutiny, need for resources, rest after 8 years of war
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Features of the NEP
Surplus grain sold, tax breaks for better farmers, small factories privatised, new rouble, electrification, coal & steal remain under state control, large scale western trade
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Effects of NEP
NEPMEN and Kulaks, opposition from communists, improved industry and economy
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How did Stalin become leader?
used job as general sec. to recruit supporters, persuaded central comittee to keep Lenin's will secret, Socialism in one country, getting rid of opposition
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Economic causes of Purges
Need for mass forced labour and reason for setbacks
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Political causes of Purges
removing potential threats and kulaks
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Psychological causes of purges
Persecution complex and murder of kirov
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Key features of Purges
Secret police, show trials, great terror and gulags
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Social effects of purges
climate of fear, russification, people lost jobs out of jealousy
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Economic & political effects of purges
expulsions from party, job losses, skilled workers killed
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Military effects of purges
army weakened through loss of leadership, military forced to mix with nationalities
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Key features of Cult of Stalin
Cult of Lenin, re-writing history, eduation & youth movements, Social Realism, censorship, religious persecution
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Key features of 1936 Constitution
secret ballots, republics made equal, workers benefits and fake civil liberties
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Reasons for collectivisation
Fear of invasion, disappointing output, communist ideology, feed workers, establish power in countryside
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Key features of industrialisation
Kolkhoz farmers lived off surplus food, Sovkhoz farmers paid to work, MTS supplied machinery
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Effects of Collectivisation
control over countryside, town and army fed, production fell, inefficient farming, massive human loss
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Reasons for Industrialisation
Fear of invasion, disappointing output, communist ideology, increase control over citizens, discredit NEP supporters
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Features of first 5 YP 1928
heavy and new industries improved, revised targets,
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features of second 5 YP 1933
consumerist good and arms due to increased threat from Germany
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features of third 5 YP 1938
consumerist and luxury goods but abandoned due to WWII
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Feautures of industrialisation
gosplan, gigantomania, stakhanovites, increased employment and production, international influence
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Benefits of industrialisation
increased production and employment, new class of successful workers, female employment, elite taskforce, morale boost, ready for WWII
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Costs of industrialisation
rushing caused injuries and poor quality goods, crime increased, poor workers from counrtyside, slave labour and human cost
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Life for a Party member in 1930s
career ladder created, better housing and benefits
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Life for a Peasant in 1930s
no more kulaks, recommitted to surfdom, passport laws, starvation and poor conditions
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Life for a Worker in 1930s
better education, no unemployment, benefits, healthcare, overcrowding
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Life for a Woman in 1930s
suffrage and equal pay, but harder to get divorce and abortions, child allowances
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Life for a Nationality in 1930s
Russification, native languages banned. ethnic groups purged
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key features of 1924 constitution
USSR established, all power to All-Union Congress of Soviets, claims of autonomy
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Problems of peasants pre 1917


little arable land, old fashioned methods, short life expectancy

Card 3


Problems of workers pre 1917


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What was bloody Sunday?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Why was there opposition to the Tsar?


Preview of the front of card 5
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