Russia Unit 3

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What were th 3 main reasons for the NEP?
1. Condition of Russia 2. Effects of War Communisum 3. The Kronstadt Rebellion
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What was the 'condition of Russia' in 1921?
Economy in ruins- 4 years of rebellion and war had drained its resources
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What effect did 'War Communisum' have on the Cities?
little food- workers moved to countryside so industrial production collapsed- population of petrograd fell from 2.5m in 1917 to over half a million in 1920
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What effect did war communisum have on the Countryside?
grew less food because surplus was requisitioned by cheka
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What else caused problems for the Peasents?
Drought in 1920 and 1921 menat crops were poor- not enough for peasents let alone workers in cities
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What did this result in?
Famine in 1921 that killed 7m people
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Why did the Kronstadt saliors rebel?
Felt betrayed by Bolsheviks and demanded that power be returned to the people- called for 'Soviets without Bolsheviks'
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What happened at the Kronstadt Rebellion in 1921?
Trotsky ordered the Red Army under the command of General Tukhachevsky to cross the ice with 60,000 troops and crush the rebellion
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What were the consequnces of the Rebellion?
10,000 men killed or sent to labour camps
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Why were the Bolshevik leaders shocked by the Kronstadt Rebellion?
Sailors had always been loyal bolshevik supporters - Trotsky had described them as the 'Heros of the revolution'
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When did lenin realise that War communisum had to be replaced by the NEP?
March 1921
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What were some of the Main terms of the NEP?
requsitiong stopped- Peasents could sell surplus for profit (more food= more money)- Factories with less than 20 workers handed back and allowed to make profit- Large scale industry owned by gov (bonuses for increased production)- increased foregen
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How did the NEp benfit agriculture?
recovered quickly- peasents willing to grow more as could sell surplus crops- famine ended- food prices dropped
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What impact did the NEP have on industry?
Workers slow to return to cities so recovery was slow- still shortages of goods until 1923 so prices stayed high
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This caused the sissor crisis. What is this?
Surplus food resulted in a fall in price of agricultural products whist the price of industrial products were high as they were in short supply
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What were Nepmen?
New class of traders and Merchants- wealthy because of NEP
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Why were many Bolsheviks unhappy with the NEP?
all wealth should be owned by state- encourged captialism
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What were the benifits of the NEP?
Ended famine- factiry output increased by 200%- shops and cafes reopened- increased trade- profit could be made
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What were some disadvantages of the NEP?
Crime in cities increased, encougred captilism, sissor crisis, temporary, kulaks and nepmen caused corruption
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By 1921 Russia had become a...........
one party state
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in 1918 the Bolsheviks changed their name to ........
Communist party of the soviet union- CPSU
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In theroy the power with.......
Central comittee of the communist party- CCCP
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What two smaller groups did the power actually lie with?
Politburo and the orgburo
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What was the Politburo?
A small group of leading Bolsheviks (lenin, trotsky, stalin) who met everyweek to make important decisions
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What was the Orgburo?
Organisanal Bureau- carried out descions made by Politburo- led by stailin
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What was the Comintern?
orgainised communist revolutions across europe to spread communium- alarmed Britian
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Why did Lenin contnue to use the Cheka?
To stamp out any oppisition
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What is Centralisation?
goverment gained total control over economy and industry- through NEP
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What happened to Russian Banks?
Were nationlised and private accounts were confiscated
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Why did the Russian Orthodox Church present problems to the Bolsheviks?
Bolsheviks were atheist where as majorty of Russians were deeply religous!
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Lenin thought the church would encougre opposition, how did he slove this?
Sieze chruch property- allow freedom of worship (choice)- clergy had to pay high taxes- presit banned from meeting without permisson- sunday schools closed and RE no longer taught in schools
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in 1917 most people were illrate. Lenin thought this was how....
the ruling classes controlled the workers and peasents
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What did he introduce?
free 9 years of complusary education for children under 15 (pioneer)- special classes for adults
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What was the Komsomol?
Created to encougre communist ideas amongst the young
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What did lenin create for women?
Women;s deparmeny led by Alexandra Kollontai.
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How did life improve for women?
gained equality- marriage law (men 18 women 16 marry)- divorce and abosrtion avalible- better helathcare= childbirth less hazadous- all carreers open due to education- paid maternity leave
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What were the disadvantages for women?
As men reaturned from war they were forced from skilled jobs to unskilled jobs
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How did art change in Russia?
Aimed at oridary people to understand and enjoy- style known as 'socialist Realism'- modernised
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What did the Bolsheviks thimk the duty of art was?
make sure the message of the revolution was understood by everyboady- showed events of Oct revolution, lives of happy peasents and Lenin as a hero
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What were posters used for?
many people unable to read so cold get message over much simpler to far more people than a newspaper
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What notice did the posters contain?
'Anybody who tears down or covers this poster is commiting a counter revolutionary act'
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Why were bolshvik films produced?
To spread communism- Octber and 'Battleship Potemkin' potryaed events of the October Revolution
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What was censorship like?
Strict- newspapers, books and films were only allowed if they carried a communist message.
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What was Agitprop and how was it used?
Spread ideas- trains and boats sent out so people could see plays, posters and films which contained communist propaganda
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In 1924 what did Russia change its name to?
Union of soviet socialist republics- Soviet union to west
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How was the country set up?
A union of 4 republics
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What were the 4 republics?
Russia, Ukraine, Byelorussia and Caucasus.
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What did each have control over?
local affairs eg. education- important affairs such as foregein policy controlled by national goverment in Moscow.
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From 1921 until 1924 what did Lenin suffer with?
seris of strokes- 3rd left him permantly speechless
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When did Lenin Die?
January 1924
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What happened to his body?
lay in state for a week whist thousands qued to pay their respects- after funeral body embalmed and put on show in a mausoleum in Moscow
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What did they change Petrograd to?
Leningrad
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Why would Trotsky succed Lenin?
important part in October Revolution & Bolshvik takeover- Creator&commandar Red army= resonsible for victory- worked closely with Lenin 1917- brillant speaker- lenin regaurded him as the 'ablest man in central comittee'
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What were his weaknesses?
he was a jew and Bolsheviks were anti-semitic- until 1917 he was a menshivik so distrusted by many- arrogant and flashes of temper so unpopular and lenin had critised for being too slef confident- failed to attend Lenin funeral looked insulting
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Why did Trotsky not attend Lenins funeral?
claimed to have been ill and that Stalin had tols him the wrong date so he arrived to late
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What were Stalins strenghs?
Peasent by birth so popular with oridanry members of party- long standing member- Generall secertary of party people scared they would lose their jobs if did not support him
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What were his weaknesses?
Lenin had not trusted him and wanted him removed from General sectary
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Why did oridanry members of the Party not know about this?
lenins Testament critised many leading Bolshviks so the politburo decied not to make it public
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How did Trortsky and Stailn disagree?
Trotsky wanted to spread communisum where as stailn belived in socialism in one country he felt that the USSR should concebtrate on establishing communism at home and making the country powerful
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Who won the Power struggle?
Stalin
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What happened to Russia under Stailn?
became a totalitran state under which the communists denied Russain citizens basic liberties like freedom of speech
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What did stailn use to keep control?
Police state where people were imprisoned and sent to labour camps or exucuted without trial
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What did Stailn turn the USSR into?
major industrial power and was able to defeat Nazi Germany and emerge as a superpower after WW2.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What was the 'condition of Russia' in 1921?

Back

Economy in ruins- 4 years of rebellion and war had drained its resources

Card 3

Front

What effect did 'War Communisum' have on the Cities?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What effect did war communisum have on the Countryside?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What else caused problems for the Peasents?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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