Roads to modernity- Origins of WW1

  • Created by: Heather
  • Created on: 19-04-17 22:44
How does Gove describe the dominant narrative of World War one now through popular TV?
"The conflict has, for many, been seen through fictional prism of dramas such as Oh! What a Lovely War, the Monocled Mutineer and Blackadder' as misgotten shambles, a series of catastrophic mistakes perpetrated by an out of touch elite'
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Which academics are 'all too happy to feed those myths by attacking' what?
-Left wing academics, -'by attacking Britain's role in the conflict'
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What do most of these narratives argue about Britain and justification?
They argue Britain was justified against Germany who began the war,
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What historian argues the causes of the First World War are what?
-Hewitson, -A confusing testimony,
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What has recent scholarship concentrated on and examples?
-'Unspoken assumptions', -About war, armament, empire, diplomacy, national identity and interest,
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Who was part of the Triple Alliance?
Germany, Italy and Austria Hungary
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When was the dual alliance made between Germany and Austria Hungary?
1879
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When did Italy join the Triple Alliance?
1882
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What was it designed as a counterpart to?
France and Russia,
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What is the name of the alliance between Great Britain, Russia and France?
Triple Entente
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For the franco-russian alliance, what did Russia fear that made a French alliance appeal more?
Russia feared an expanded triple alliance,
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What did France desire to do?
Recapture the lost provinces of Alsace and Lorraine
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In early 1892, what did Tsar Alexander III suggest abotu Germany attacking?
Tsar Alexander III suggested that if Germany attacked either France or Russia, the other must immediately come to their aid,
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When was the France Russia Alliance finally ratified?
4th January 1894,
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Did this lead immediately to two irreconcilable blocs?
No- They believed Russia superpower status was more powerful to the inferior France,
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Did this alliance throw Europe into two major power spheres?
No but it pushed Germany to begin to look
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For the end of British isolation, who has faith in isolationism?
Salisbury
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Was it unusual that Britain woud align with France and Russia?
It wasn't inevitable, -They made an alliance with Japan in 1902
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What did this alliance ensure?
It ensured security in the Far East without undertaking dangerous continental commitments,
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Therefore in theory, if Russia has conflicting issues with China or angered Japan, who would Britain be at war with?
Britain could be at war with both France and Russia unless Britain also made a pact with Russia
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When did the Russo- Japanese War break out?
In Feb 1904
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Who were keen not to get involved?
Britain and France
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What process had been underway for over a year?
Process of settling imperial differences
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When was the entente cordial signed?
April 1904
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Was this an alliance?
No, it was focused on colonial disputes,
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What was the significance of this agreement?
It marked the end of the oldest animosity in th world,
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How binding was this agreement>
It was nothing binding, but assumed a moral dimension that restricted British imperial movement
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How did Sir Grey descrive the Cordial?
"The Entente and still more the constant and emphatic demonstrations of affection have created in France a belief we will support them in a war."
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For the First Moroccan Crisis, what was the aim of this?
To test the resilience of the Entente
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When was this crisis?
1905
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What was France's aim in this crisis?
France sought to establish protectorate over Morocco
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Kaiser visited Tangiers and promised what?
They publically promised to support Morocco against any aggression
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When did Germany call a conference to resolve the crisi?
April 1905
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Who rallied behind France?
Russian and Britain
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When was the Anglo-Russian Entente signed?
31st August 1907
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What was it an attempt to reconcile?
Imperial differences,
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How did Grey describe this triple entente?
"An entente between Russia, France and ourselves would be absolutely secure. If it is necessary to check Germany it could then be done."
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What was Britain motivated by in this entente cordial?
Curshing German ambition
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What did Germany reassure about the Triple Alliance?
It wasn't a military alliance and it wasn't his intention to create Europe into a power base,
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What do foreign policy things is Britain wary of?
Wary of Russia's imperial treat and Germany's Weltpolitik
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Who sought an agreement with Germany?
Chamberlain and Balfour,
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What historian convinced that Britain remained as likely an enemy as Germany?
Delcasse,
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German Weltpolitik antagonised the British, particularly with what laws?
1898 and 1900 Navy Laws
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What were these navy Laws designed to do?
Designed to deter any foreign enemies from invading Germany, and perhaps lead Britain to align with Germany however it had the opposite effect
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How did Hillgruber describe Germany's foreign policy?
'the opportunist and defensive character of German policy'
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What do the revisionists argue about Germany and foreign policy in contrast?
'Germany felt virtually compelled to take part in the scramble for overseas territories,
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When was the Second Moroccan crsis?
Spring 1911
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In Spring 1911 where did France occupy?
The Moroccan capital, Fez
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What gunboat did Germany send?
The panther, to Agadir,
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What did Lloyd George decide about the Second Moroccan Crisis?
Britain could not stay out of a Franco-German crisis
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When was the crisis resolved?
Autumn
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What agreement between who did this strengthen most?
it strengthened the Franco-Britain entente agreement,
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What was there a wave of in france?
Wave of anti-German sentiment in France
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Why did resentment develop in Germany?
As they had to stand down,
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For the Arms Race and German militarism, what was introduced in 1912?
Germany Army Bill
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For the Schlieffen Plan, what historian argued that Schlieffen and Moltke were fare from certain that they could win?
Forster
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What does Forster argue about the Schlieffen Plan?
He 'did not dare to abandon the Schlieffen plan in spite of its obvious shortcomings...Instead, he tried to convince himself and others that there was no alternatve"
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Who agrees with Forster?
Mombauer
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What is the difference Mombauer identifies over Forster?
She emphasises the independence of Moltke with respect to the legacy of Schlieffen
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What did Moltke say in the 1912 War Council?
'I believe war is unavoidable and the sooner the better"
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What does the quote show about Germany?
It shows Germany was planning a war to be won within one or two years due to the presence of the wae council,
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Who supported Fisches assertions about German leaders and war?
German leaders were confident that they could win a continental war, that they pursued an offensive policy at the risk of war,
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However, who criticises Fischers work and why?
-Schollgen, -Fischer's works are 'rich, not very readable contributions to the foreign policy of imperial Germany
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What did Revisionist historians work centre on?
The economics of war and the role played by industrialist, financiers and landowners,
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For militarism, the Entente Powers what Plan was it where France desired to recapture Alsace-Lorraine?
Plan XVII in 1912
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What Plan did Russia have and what army programme in 1913?
Plan XIX and 'Great Army Programme'
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What was the aim of the programme?
Increase men with half a million in the army,
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When did Britain begin to prepare for war with Germany?
As early as 1905
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Was it just Germany who was prepaing for an aggressive war?
No it wasn't just Germany- There was co-ordination between Entente powers
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For Balkan tensions, what unification encouraged Balkan nationalism?
German and Italian unification,
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What was Serbia the centre of?
Pan-Slavic nationlism
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How did this cause further destabilisation?
It caused further destabilisation of an already fragile Habsburg Empire
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This led to what between Austria Hungary and Serbia?
Antagonism
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What did Serbia step up efforts to do in the Balkans?
Serbia stepped up efforts to cultivate nationalism across the Balkans,
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For the July crisis and coming of war, who was assassinated on the 28th June 1914 and where?
Franz Ferdinand in Bosnia
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Who killed Ferdinand?
a member of the Black Hand Gang, Princep, killed him,
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What does Germany do on the 5th July?
Germany offers unconditional support to Austria
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When did Austria Hungary declare war on Serbia?
28th July 1914
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What happened on 29th July?
Russia mobolises in support of Serbia,
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When does Germany declare war on Russia andFrance mobolises in support of Russia?
1st August
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When happened on the 3rd August?
Germany declares war on France,
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What happened on 4th August?
Britin declares war on Germany
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When does Austria Hungary declare war on Russia?
6th August
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For reasons why Britain entered into the war, what was their main reason based on Belgium?
"Poor little Belgium"- Treaty of London- They want to uphold their honour to hold the neutrality of Belgium,
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What is another reason Britain entered the war based on alliances?
Triple Entente obligation,
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What is another reason based on ports?
They wanted to control channel ports,
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What is another reason based on power and balance?
Balance of power considerations- Perhaps to ensure Germany didn't win and becomes a major super power,
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What is another reason based on being left out?
Fears of staying out- If Birtain wanted any infuence on say in post-war conference they would need to get involved,
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What did Hewitson argue about why leaders go to war?
Many leaders are held to have acted 'defensively', feeling that their nation was in decline or at least seriously threatened
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For domestic factors and imperialism for Britain, what was the empire a barometer of?
Great Power status
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Both German and Italy sought what which Britain already had?
Their 'place in the sun'
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What drew Britain into the Triple Entente based on domestic factors?
Britain's need to settle imperial differences
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What was seen as a means of deflecting attention from domestic unrest?
nationalism, patriotism and jingoism
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What occured in Britain for war?
Conscription
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What occured in Britain based on labour?
Organised labour/ militant socialism
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What was another domestic policy based on Ireland?
Home rule in Ireland
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For the historiographical debate on war guilt, what did revisionist historians focus on instead?
They focused on structural factors rather than German guilt,
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By 1945, what consensus emrged suggesting what?
Suggests that Europe stumbled inadvertently into WW1
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For German culpability, what did Taylor argue about German policy?
Alleged a continuity in German policy from Bismarck to Hitler
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What does Fischer argue about Germany and foreign policy?
Germany went to war in pursiit of expansion foreign policy aims and war pre-determined,
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For the 1970s-80s, what is there focus on for policies?
1970s-80s- Focus on interpersonal and domestic motivations,
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For the 1990s, what is there emphasis on for policies?
Emphasis on role of Germany and Austria-Hungary,
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For conclusions, what are the causes of war?
Complex
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What are the 4 difference main strings/ causes?
1) was it german expansion and anger, 2) Domestic unrest hiding 3)Tangles web of alliances 4)Imperialism and colonialism defence
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What did this lead to the beginning of?
Modernity
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Card 2

Front

Which academics are 'all too happy to feed those myths by attacking' what?

Back

-Left wing academics, -'by attacking Britain's role in the conflict'

Card 3

Front

What do most of these narratives argue about Britain and justification?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What historian argues the causes of the First World War are what?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What has recent scholarship concentrated on and examples?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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