Transport in the Early Modern Period II

  • Created by: Alasdair
  • Created on: 20-05-18 13:26
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  • Transport in the Early Modern Period II
    • Canals
      • Modern canals were used from 1761 in Britain to transport coal around the country
      • James Brindley built private canals which were considered a useful investment
        • Brindley was hired by Duke of Bridgwater who wanted to enhance coal selling profits as he could transport it more cheaply and widely
        • Brindley built first canal entirely independent of rivers
        • Built approximately 300 miles of canals
    • Ships
      • J. R. Smith
        • Ship owners had to be relatively wealthy individuals
          • Davis supports
            • even buying second-hand ship would be incredibly expensive due to it requiring greater maintenance
            • Other costs came in form of hull, mast and internal fittings within ship to transport goods
            • Additionally, the risk of accidents at sea could add to possible costs
            • port charges and wages for the crew
      • English international trade began to rapidly expand due to formation of formalised trading companies
        • Made it easier to:
          • negotiate favourable trade deals for members
          • Protect members within nations that were being trade with
          • Protect property and trade rights from non-members
          • set up joint stock ventures
            • e.g. Virginia Company
              • based both in London and Plymouth and used to trade with America
              • Later played part in setting up New England colony
            • Due to success of setup, some Companies became almost independent of countries that founded them in the first place
              • Davis argues:
                • Success can also be measured by fact ships grew bigger to carry more goods
              • Power of East India Trading Company can be seen in how it set up trading posts
                • e.g. Bantam (Indonesia in 1603) and India
              • Company, originally on James I's orders, arranged commercial treat with the Mughal Emperor, Narraddin Salim Jahangir
              • East India Trading Company exported tea, sugar and opium
                • Initially tea was bought from China with silver but when traders could no longer afford to pay with silver, Chinese tea merchants were paid with opium instead from 1700 onwards
              • Other raw materials it traded included jute and rubber
                • Rubber did not arrive until late 1800s
              • Introduction of raw materials (rubber, jute, etc.) in Britain has been described as essential in turning Britain into the economic powerhouse it was at the time
    • Effects of improved transport
      • Greater connections across country to travel
      • In England, roads allowed much trade internally to go on
        • especially between London and nearby home counties
      • Use of canals also allowed raw materials, such as coal to be transported more cheaply and widely
      • Enhanced London as centre of power
      • Allowed greater trade connections around world to places such as India and America
      • Saw trade companies form and become extremely powerful


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