Responding to the environment

HideShow resource information
What is the largest part of the brain, and what are the two hemisphere connected by?
Cerebrum, Corpus Callosum
1 of 75
What is the cerebrums function?
Higher brain functions: conscious thought, emotional responses, reasoning and imagination.
2 of 75
What specific activities and body regions is the sensory area in the cerebral cortex responsible for?
Sensory areas receive impulses indirectly from receptors.
3 of 75
What specific activities and body regions is the association area in the cerebral cortex responsible for?
Learn from previous experiences and judge an appropriate response.
4 of 75
What specific activities and body regions is the motor area in the cerebral cortex responsible for?
Send impulses to effectors (muscles and glands).
5 of 75
What are the roles of the cerebellum?
Controls the coordination of movement and posture, coordinating balance and fine movement.
6 of 75
What are the roles of the medulla oblangata?
Controls the action of smooth muscles in the gut wall (peristalsis), controls breathing and heart rate. Controls cardiac and smooth muscle. The cardiac centre and respiratory centre is found in the medulla.
7 of 75
What are the roles of the hypothalamus?
Controls the homeostatic mechanisms and regulates the pituitary gland.
8 of 75
What does the central nervous system consist of?
Brain and spinal cord.
9 of 75
What does the peripheral nervous system consist of?
Somatic - conscious - motor neurones carrying impulses from CNS to skeletal (voluntary) muscles. Autonomic - non-conscious - motor neurones carry impulses from CNS to smooth (involuntary) muscles.
10 of 75
What is the autonomic system divided into?
Parasympathetic and sympathetic subsystem.
11 of 75
What are the features of the parasympathetic subsystem?
Active in sleep and relaxation, pre-ganglionic neurones vary in length, post-ganglionic neurones secrete acetylcholine (adrenaline), effects: decreased heart rate, decreased ventilation rate, pupil constriction, sexual arousal.
12 of 75
What are the features of the sympathetic subsystem?
Active in times of stress, short pre-ganglionic neurones, post-ganglionic neurones secrete noradrenaline, effects: increased heart rate, increased ventilation rate, pupil dilation.
13 of 75
What is the 1st step in the neuromuscular junction, during coordinated movement?
impulses arrive at the neuromuscular junction and causes vesicles to fuse with the pre-synaptic membrane to release acetylcholine by exocytosis.
14 of 75
What is the 2nd step in the neuromuscular junction, during coordinated movement?
Acetylcholine binds to receptors on the muscle fibre membrane (sarcolemma) causing depolarisation.
15 of 75
What is the 3rd step in the neuromuscular junction, during coordinated movement?
Depolarisation wave travels down tubules (T system).
16 of 75
What is the 4th step in the neuromuscular junction, during coordinated movement?
T system depolarisation leads to the release of calcium ions from stores in the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
17 of 75
What is the 5th step in the neuromuscular junction, during coordinated movement?
Calcium ions bind to proteins in the muscle, which leads to muscle contraction.
18 of 75
What are the components of a synovial joint?
Cartilage: pads where the bones meet, reduces friction as bones move. Sinovial membrane: produces synovial fluid. Sinovial fluid: lubricates the joint. Ligament: holds bones together to prevent dislocation.
19 of 75
Why is a synovial joint described as antagonistic?
One muscle contracts while the other relaxes.
20 of 75
What are the features of INVOLUNTARY smooth muscle and where are they found?
Unstriated, spindle shaped, has 1 nucleus. Found in walls of intestine, iris of the eye and walls of arteries, cervix and uterus.
21 of 75
What are the features of cardiac muscle?
Myogenic - stimulates contraction without nerve input. Striated cells, intercollated discs, branched fibres.
22 of 75
What are the features of VOLUNTARY skeletal muscle?
Striated, multinucleated. In the sarcoplasm there is a lot of mitochondria, sarcoplasmic reticulum, myofibrils (actin and myosin) containing smaller sarcomeres,
23 of 75
What are the A band, H zone and I band in the sliding filament model?
A band - the length of the thick filament, H zone - part of the thick filament which is not overlapped by the thin filament. I band - from the end of one thick filament to the start of the next thick filament.
24 of 75
What is happening in the sliding filament model?
In the sarcomere, thin filaments slide over thick filaments more: the A band stays the same - thick filaments don't change length, the H zone becomes smaller - more thin filament overlaps the thick filament, the I band/sarcomere becomes smaller.
25 of 75
What happens when no calcium ion is bound to troponin during the power stroke/muscle contraction?
Tropomyosin blocks the active site of actin, myosin cannot bind to actin.
26 of 75
What happens when a calcium ion binds to troponin during the power stroke/muscle contraction?
A change in shape occurs, myosin can bind to the active site of actin as tropomyosin is not blocking the active site of actin. the myosin head attaches to form a cross bridge.
27 of 75
What happens after myosin binds to actin during the power stroke/muscle contraction?
Myosin releases ADP and phosphate causing the actin to move backwards and contract, this reducing the sarcomere length and H zone. When ADP and P released the head of myosin curves moving backwards and pulling actin, this is the power stroke.
28 of 75
What happens when myosin is released during the power stroke/muscle contraction?
ATP is hydrolysed to ADP and P which makes the myosin relax.
29 of 75
What does the term 'flight or fight response' mean?
the full range of coordinated responses of animals to situations of perceived danger.
30 of 75
What happens during the 'flight or fight response'?
The hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system, which activates the glands and smooth muscles and the adrenal medulla. the adrenal medulla secretes adrenaline and noradrenaline which enters the bloodstream.
31 of 75
What is the role of the anterior pituitary gland during the flight or fight response?
It releases CRT, the pituitary gland then secretes the hormone ACTH which arrives at the adrenal cortex and releases 30 hormones into the blood stream.
32 of 75
How are the following physiological changes advantageous in preparing for action: pupils dilate, heart rate and blood pressure increases, blood glucose levels increase, endorphin released, ventilation increases, erector pili muscles in skin contract?
See more - more light aids vision, pump more oxygen to muscles quickly, respire quicker and longer, numb pain, more oxygen more carbon dioxide released, hair stands up.
33 of 75
What is meant by innate behaviours?
Behaviour is genetically determined, stereotypical, rigid, same for all organisms, unconscious, aids survival and the environment has no impact.
34 of 75
What is a reflex?
An innate behaviour, it is an automatic response to something, involuntary response done without thinking (unconscious response).
35 of 75
What is taxis?
An innate response. A directional orientation response. e.g. positive phototaxis: towards light, negative phototaxis: away from light.
36 of 75
What is kinesis?
An innate response. A non-directional orientation response. e.g. woodlice avoid predation and drying out by living in damp dark areas, if placed in dry bright areas they move around randomly until there in more favourable conditions.
37 of 75
What are fixed action patterns (FAP)?
Series of innate behaviours. e.g. bees waggle dance - communicate to show distance and location of food source.
38 of 75
What is meant by learned behaviours?
Animal responses that change or adapt with experience.
39 of 75
What is habituation?
A learned behaviour, that involves ignoring a stimulus overtime e.g. ticking clocks. Avoids wasting energy in making escape responses to non-harmful stimuli.
40 of 75
What is imprinting?
A learned behaviour, young animals become associated with a role model usually the parent. Forms a bond with the 1st organism they see. sensitive period - 36 hours.
41 of 75
What is classical conditioning?
The unconditioned stimulus (food) produces an unconditioned response (salivation). The neutral stimulus (bell) produces no response. The US is paired with the NS several times, overtime the conditioned stimulus produces a conditioned response.
42 of 75
What is operant conditioning?
Trial and error learning, behaviour is reinforced by positive and negative reinforcers.
43 of 75
What is latent (exploratory) learning?
Animals explore new surroundings and retain information, remember where is safe and where isn't safe, aids navigation.
44 of 75
What is insight learning?
Highest form of learning, ability to think and reason in order to solve complex behaviours.
45 of 75
What is a hierarchy?
Different individuals have different status and roles within the group, this leads to social control and protection of all group members. Individuals higher up receive more food and have rights of access to mate etc.
46 of 75
What is social behaviour?
Organisms of a particular species living together in groups with relatively defined roles for each member of the group.
47 of 75
What are examples of social behaviour in primates?
Climbing, fighting, eating, caring for offspring, communication, foraging, cleaning each other.
48 of 75
What are the advantages of social behaviour?
Females provide attention to 1 or 2 offspring and have strong maternal instincts to increase offspring's survival rate. Infants learn through observations and also gain knowledge of food supply. Greater ability to detect predators - work together.
49 of 75
Why is 'primate-like' care beneficial?
Gorillas have close contact with offspring in first 5 months, 12 months they only venture 5m away. Creates a strong bond between mother and baby.
50 of 75
What is the effect of dopamine?
Increased dopamine increases cerebral activity which increases arousal and decreases inhibitions.
51 of 75
What is the role of dopamine?
It acts as a neurotransmitter and a hormone. It is a precursor molecule in the production of adrenaline and noradrenaline.
52 of 75
What is the cause and treatment of Parkinson's disease?
It results from low levels of dopamine, it is treated with L-dopa.
53 of 75
How is taking L-dopa linked to schizophrenia?
After treatment using L-dopa, increased dopamine levels linked to schizophrenia and compulsive behaviours such as gambling.
54 of 75
What is the DRD4 gene?
One of 5 genes that code for dopamine receptor molecules. Inheritance of particular variants of DRD4 gene affects levels and action of dopamine. ADHD and addictive and risk behaviours are caused by different variants of the DRD4 gene.
55 of 75
What are other neurotransmitter influenced behavioural conditions?
OCD - deficiency in levels of serotonin.
56 of 75
Why do plants respond to the environment?
To avoid stress, predation and to survive to reproduce and gain nutrients.
57 of 75
What is phototropism?
When a shoot grows towards light (positively phototropic) enables them to photosynthesise.
58 of 75
What is geotropism?
When roots grow towards the pull of gravity, enables plants to take up water for support (turgor pressure) and to gain nutrients needed for synthesis of amino acids.
59 of 75
What is chemotropism?
Pollen tubes grow towards chemicals, towards the ovary during fertilisation.
60 of 75
What is thigmotropism?
Plants respond to touch. Shoots of climbing plants such as ivy wind around solid supports.
61 of 75
What are plants hormones and how do they carry out their role?
They coordinate plants responses and are plant growth regulators. They bind to specific complementary receptors on the plasma membrane of the target cells.
62 of 75
How do hormones travel around the plant?
By diffusion, active transport and mass flow in the phloem sap or in the xylem vessels.
63 of 75
What is auxin's effect on a plant?
It promotes cell elongation and inhibits abscission.
64 of 75
What is cytokinins effect on a plant?
It promotes cell division.
65 of 75
What is abscisic acids effect on a plant?
It inhibits germination and growth and causes stomatal closure.
66 of 75
What is ethene's effect on a plant?
Promotes fruit ripening.
67 of 75
What is meristem?
Groups of immature cells that are still capable of dividing.
68 of 75
Where are apical meristems located and state their role?
Tips and apex of roots and shoots, responsible for roots and shoots getting longer.
69 of 75
Where are lateral bud meristems located and state their role?
In the buds and allows side shoots to develop.
70 of 75
Where are lateral meristems located and state their role?
In the cylinder near the outside of roots and shoots, responsible for roots and shoots getting wider.
71 of 75
Where are intercalary meristems located and state their role?
Between the nodes, shoots get longer.
72 of 75
How does auxin contribute towards growth?
It increases the stretchiness of cell walls this promotes active transport of hydrogen ions. Low pH allows wall-loosening enzymes to work and break hydrogen bonds in cellulose.
73 of 75
What happens during phototropism when auxin is present?
If the light side is at one side of the shoot, auxin moves down the shaded part of the plant and these cells elongate causing the cell to bend towards the light source. Light source at both sides - even distribution of auxin.
74 of 75
What is senescence and abscission?
Senescence is when leaves age and turn brown, cytokinins stops this. Abscission is shedding leaves, auxin inhibits abscission.
75 of 75

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the cerebrums function?

Back

Higher brain functions: conscious thought, emotional responses, reasoning and imagination.

Card 3

Front

What specific activities and body regions is the sensory area in the cerebral cortex responsible for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What specific activities and body regions is the association area in the cerebral cortex responsible for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What specific activities and body regions is the motor area in the cerebral cortex responsible for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Human, animal and plant behaviour resources »