Research studies

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Ritzer
Investigated McDonaldisation. He presented some major characteristics: efficiency, predictability, calculability, non-human technology.
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Adorno
Marxist. He believed that mass culture makes proletariat less able to appreciate more complex forms, such as classical music.
2 of 10
Livingstone
Criticised Marxist view on mass culture. He assumed that mass culture can benefit society. For example, soap operas may educate about important social issues, such as homelessness or poverty.
3 of 10
Strinati
He suggests that there is too big diversity to be able to talk about standardisation.
4 of 10
Murray
Created a concept of underclass.
5 of 10
Pakulski & Waters
They argued that lifestyles are currently the main organising feature of people's lives and source of identity, therefore rejecting the term of social class identity.
6 of 10
Savage
He pointed 4 types of middle class groups: professionals, managers, self-employed owners of small business and white-collar or clerical workers.
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Savage et al.
Investigated social class identities in Manchester area. They found out that very few of their sample believed that Britain was a classless society. Although they concluded that class identities were generally very weak.
8 of 10
Guibernau & Goldblatt
Argue that British identity was created around five key terms: understanding of people from other countries, mistakes of the past (history), acceptance of an individuality, the national symbols, history & culture of other countries (Scotland & Wales)
9 of 10
Waters
Suggested there are 4 reasons for a change in British identity: multiculturalism, globalisation, stronger Celtic identity, concerns about nationalism and English identity
10 of 10

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Card 2

Front

Marxist. He believed that mass culture makes proletariat less able to appreciate more complex forms, such as classical music.

Back

Adorno

Card 3

Front

Criticised Marxist view on mass culture. He assumed that mass culture can benefit society. For example, soap operas may educate about important social issues, such as homelessness or poverty.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

He suggests that there is too big diversity to be able to talk about standardisation.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Created a concept of underclass.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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