Research method examples

Laboratory Experiments
Milgram's experiment (1974) into obedience towards authority figures.
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Laboratory Experiments
Harvey and Slatin (1976) examined whether teachers had preconceived ideas about pupils of different social classes.
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Laboratory Experiments
Charkin et al (1975) used a sample of 48 university students who each taught a lesson to a ten-year-old boy.
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Laboratory Experiments
Mason (1973) looked at whether negative or positive expectations had the greater effect.
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Field Experiments
Rosenthal and Jacobson's experiment (1968) into the effect teacher labelling and SFP can have on pupil achievement.
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Field Experiments
David Rosenhan's (1973) 'psuedopatient' experiment.
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The Comparative Method
Durkheim's study of suicide (1897)
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Structured Interviews
Young and Wilmott interviews 933 people. Only 54 refused an interview out of 987.
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Unstructured Interviews
Hartly Dean and Peter Taylor-Gooby (1992) used unstructured tape-recorded interviews, lasting up to 90 minutes, with 85 claimants.
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Group Interviews
Paul Willis (1977) used group interviews as part of his research into the 'lads' and schooling.
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Interviews
Becker (1971) Interviewed 60 high school teachers in Chicago, asking them what their ideal pupil would be.
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Closed-ended Questionnaires
Michael Rutter (1979) used questionnaires to gain information from 12 inner London secondary schools.
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Posted/mailed Questionnaires
Shere Hite’s (1991) study in America sent out 100,000 questionnaires, only 4.5% were returned.
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Posted/mailed Questionnaires
Helen Connor and Sara Dewson (2001) posted nearly 4,000 questionnaires to students at 14 higher education institutions around the country in their study of the factors influencing the decisions of WC students to go to uni.
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Posted/mailed Questionnaires
Michael Schofield's (1965) research on the sexual behaviour of teenagers.
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Open-ended Questionnaires
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Non-participant Observation
Tryona and Hatcher- studied racism in childrens lives through observation - focused on 10 - 11 year olds and looked at their behaviour, interactions and responses. Found where black students are a relative minority racism.
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Participant Observation
Ned Polsky (1971) who was a good pool player himself, found his skill useful in gaining entry to the world of the poolroom hustler.
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Participant Observation
James Patrick (1973)- not his real name- was able to join a Glasgow gang because he looked quite young and knew one of its members from having taught him in approved school.
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Participant Observation
Eileen Fairhurst (1977) found herself hospitalised by back trouble and used the opportunity to conduct a study on being a patient.
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Participant Observation
Elliot Liebow (1967) succeeded in gaining acceptance by a black street-corner gang in Washington DC.
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Participant Observation
Maurice Punch (1979) the study of the Amsterdam police.
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observation
Wright found that her Afro-Caribbean background produced negative results/ reactions from white teachers.
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Participant Observation
Barker (1984) did this when she studied the religious sect known as the moonies.
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Participant Observation
Whyte (1943) affected the street corner society he studied, they knew he was there and Doc, the leader, said that he now had to think about what Whyte would want to see and how he would explain it rather than just doing things like he used to.
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Official Statistics
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Documents
Philippe Aries used child-rearing manuals and paintings of children in his study of the rise of the modern notion of childhood.
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Content Analysis
Gaye Tuchman (1978) used it to analyse television's portrayal or women.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Harvey and Slatin (1976) examined whether teachers had preconceived ideas about pupils of different social classes.

Back

Laboratory Experiments

Card 3

Front

Charkin et al (1975) used a sample of 48 university students who each taught a lesson to a ten-year-old boy.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Mason (1973) looked at whether negative or positive expectations had the greater effect.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Rosenthal and Jacobson's experiment (1968) into the effect teacher labelling and SFP can have on pupil achievement.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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