Reproduction, Fertility and Contraception

Reproduction involves

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Reproduction
This involves the production of male gametes and female gametes that combine to make the next generation
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Sperm
The male gamete- is produced in the testes. Adaptations include a haploid nucleus produced by meiosis and a tail for swimming
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Egg cells (Ovum)
The female gamete is produced in the ovaries. Also has a haploid nucleus produced by meiosos
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Fertilisation
Restoring the diploid condition- occurs in the ovidixt to form the zygote
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Zygote
Divides by Mitosis to form an embryo
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Embryo
Implants in the uterus wall
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Meiosis(fertilisation)
Produces haploid gametes which are gametes with half the number of chromosomes of other cells, ensures diploid number restored after fertilisation
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Mitosis
Maintains the number of chromosomes during the growth of the embryo
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Placenta
Provides oxygen and nutrients to the foetus and removes carbon dioxide and urea
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Umbilical cord
Carries the umbilical artery and the umbilical veins nd links foetus to placenta
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Amnion
Membrane that contains the the amniotic fluid which cushions thw foetus and protects it from bumps and knocks
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Placenta
is adapted for diffusion by having a large surface area
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Contraception
preventing pregnancy
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Mechanical- condom
A barrier preventing sperm from entering the female reproductive system. it Is easily obtained amd can protect against sexualy against STIs
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Chemical- contraceptive pill
Contains hormones that prevent eggs being released . it Is very reliable. side effect include weight gain
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Surgical- vasectomy or female sterilisation
Cutting of sperm tubes or oviducts. prevents sperm and egg being released and egg passing down oviduct respectively. Virtually 100% reliable. Very difficult to reverse
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Testosterone
Provided by testes in Males. Sexual organs enlarge, body and public hair grows, voice deepens amd body become more muscular.
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Oestrogen
produced by ovaries in females. Sexual organs and breast enlarge. Public hair grows. Pelvis and hips widen. Menstruation begins
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Menstruation
Blood rich uterine lining breaks down if pregnancy does not occur during previous menstrual cycle.
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Ovulation
About 14 days into the cycle an egg is released. By this time the uterine lining has built up in preparation for pregnancy.
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Fertility problems
Many causes including females unable to produce eggs or blockages preventing movement of eggs down the oviducts amd male having low sperm count or impotence
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Sperm

Back

The male gamete- is produced in the testes. Adaptations include a haploid nucleus produced by meiosis and a tail for swimming

Card 3

Front

Egg cells (Ovum)

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Fertilisation

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Zygote

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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