Reproduction, Fertility and Contraception

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Reproduction, Fertility and Contraception

Humans carry out sexual reproduction which is the joining of two gametes - the ovum and the sperm.

Sperm and ovum are gametes or sex cells. As well as this they are haploid cells, meaning the carry half the number of chromosones that normal body cells have; when an ovum and sperm cell combine, the normal amount of chromosones is restored.

Sperm cells are made in the testes under the influence of testosterone, and their adaptions include a tail for swimming, and mitochondria for energy. Ovum cells are larger than sperm cells and are prodcued in the ovaries under the influence of oestrogen.

Fertilisation and the development of the embryo

  • Fertilisation takes place in the oviduct when the nucleus of the ovum fuses with the nucleus of the sperm.  
  • The sperm surround the egg trying to fertilise it and eventually, the


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