Remembering and Forgetting

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What types of recall tests do experiments use (5)?
Recall of events/ stories, free recall of lists of items, cued recall (paired association), serial recall, recognition tests.
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What might some cases of forgetting be due to?
Retrieval failure, not loss.
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What is retention interval confounded with?
Number of other experiences accumulated during the interval?
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What is retroactive interference?
New information makes old information harder to recall.
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What is proactive interference?
Old information makes new information harder to store/ recall.
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What is primacy effect (in free recall)?
The first few items get more rehearsals, so likely to be remembered better.
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How effective is simple rote rehearsal as a learning strategy?
Relatively ineffective.
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What is a more effective learning strategy that rote rehearsal?
Actively processing meanings and organising the materials.
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What are the benefits of mnemonics?
Bind ideas to a pre-established framework which organises them.
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What does effectiveness of encoding depend on (3)?
Elements of new experiences/ facts, elements of context, elements of prior knowledge.
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What are the effects of retrograde memory loss on TBI or ECT patients?
Disruption of process of consolidation of memory trace in hippocampal/ medial temporal cortex system.
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What can improve memory for material learned in the last few hours?
Sleep.
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How do alcohol and barbiturates affect consolidation?
They impair learning/ disrupt consolidation, but improve memory for material learned just before.
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When is retrieval interference maximal?
When the same or similar stimuli are used, creating competition between two associative links from the same retrieval cue.
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What is the fan effect and why may it be considered parodoxical?
The more facts learnt, the slower the RT for memory recall. This suggests that the more facts learnt, the harder it is to retrieve one of these facts.
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What can eliminate the fan effect?
If the facts are thematically related, as this allows the formation of associations between separate facts using pre-existing knowledge.
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What are schemas?
Knowledge of typical high patterns or event sequences.
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What is the "recovered memories" controversy?
Clear memories, although likely to be mainly accurate, may contain significant errors. Sustained pressure/ persuasion from an authority figure could cause false memories to be retrieved.
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What is source amnesia?
Retrieval of information couple with inability to remember its source.
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Why is recall said to be reconstructive?
Fragments of actual experience recovered from memory get combines with other information in the memory whose source is lost.
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Card 2

Front

What might some cases of forgetting be due to?

Back

Retrieval failure, not loss.

Card 3

Front

What is retention interval confounded with?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is retroactive interference?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is proactive interference?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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